ASET Session1 Technical Session Oral Presentation Summaries

O-1

Title:  Chemical Modelling of Combustion Processes - Influences of Sulfur and Aromatic Compounds

Author(s): Yoshinori Murakami (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

 Combustion behaviours such as air pollutions, flame stability and ignition are results of the interactions between chemistry and flow field in combustion processes. Thus computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combined with the high-temperature combustion reaction scheme were crutial for model the combustion processes. In the present work, several approaches to establish a new reaction model for the combustion processes were presented.

1. Sulfur Combustion Chemistry

 Since most fossil fuels such as biofuels and household waste contain sulfur, the combustion chemistry of sulfur containing species are very important. Sulfur dioxide (SO2), which is known as the final products of sulfur containing species in flames, was known to inhibit the ignition. It was also experimentally observed that the addition of SO2 in H2-O2 flames produced SO, S2 and H2S in the post-flame regions. In the present work by monitoring the high-temperature reactions of SO2 with H atoms and S atoms using the shock-tube apparatus, new reaction scheme for the catalytic consumption of H atoms by SO2 and further gas-phase reduction from SO2 to SO, S2 and H2S was proposed. 

2. Aromatic Combustion Chemistry

  Aromatic compound were one of the important constituents in gasolines and diesel fuels. Especially xylenes are important components of gasolines used in automobiles and thus chemical models for such fuels are important issue. Although it has long been known that o-xylene ignited much easier than m- and p-xylene, the reasons have not been clearly understood. In the present work quantum chemical calculations on the combustion reactions of these xylene isomers have been performed and found that only o-xylene had dissociative reaction channels to form OH radicals, which were the carriers of the chain branching reactions. Further discussions of the ignition characteristics of the relevant aromatic compounds have also been performed.   

O-2

Title:  Development of simple detection for formaldehyde gas with Na2SO3/NaHSO3/HCHO system 

Author(s): KARASHIMADA Ryunosuke (Toyama National College of Technology)

               MANAKA Atsushi (Toyama National College of Technology)

                 IGARASHI Syukuro (Ibaraki University)

Formaldehyde has been noticed for sick house syndrome and its carcinogenicity. Gas chromatography (GC/MS) and colorimetly have been generally used in analysis for formaldehyde until now. However, these methods have a problem in cost and rapidity. Therefore, simple and rapidly analysis method is greatly demanded for gas phase formaldehyde.

On the other hand, until now, a method of measuring concentration for solution phase formaldehyde by counting discoloring number on the microplate has been reported. This method is to measure of concentration by counting discoloring number after addition sample solution on microplate with each row. Therefore, the method is high visibility visual determination with no difference among individuals. However, there is improvement of analysis time left in the method.

Based on these findings, the purpose of this study is Development of simple detection for formaldehyde gas with Na2SO3/NaHSO3/HCHO system.

The formaldehyde was measured on the condition that the vapor concentration is 0.08 ppm in the airtight container. As a result, the solution of sulfite ion and hydrogen sulfite ion was absorbed in a sponge, it was confirmed that this method made analysis time shorter in comparison with putting the solution directly. And, it was confirmed that the discoloration time becomes shorter with decreasing the volume of sponges. In addition, the discoloration time changed with the vapor concentration of formaldehyde in the airtight container.

For these reasons, this method is thought that it would enable to determine quantity the gas phase formaldehyde by measuring discoloration time or counting discoloration sponges which are such as several concentrations the solution or several volumes sponges.

O-3

Title:  Oil Based Mud (OBM) Recovery Plant in Malaysia

Author(s):   NOOR AZIAN Morad (University Teknologi Malaysia)

            NORAZLINDA Azami (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)

                      MUSTAFA KAMAL Abdul Aziz (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)

Oil Based Mud (OBM) or oily sludge is prescribed as scheduled waste under the First Schedule of the Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations, 2005. In this respect, the Project falls under the purview of Item 18a(ii) of the Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment) Order, 1987. Item 18a(ii) is described as “Toxic and Hazardous Waste - Construction of recovery plant (off-site)”. As a consequence, a Preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report is prepared and submitted to the DOE for approval prior to project implementation. The project is known as the “Oil Based Mud (OBM) Recovery Plant on PT 7460, Teluk Kalong Industrial Estate, Mukim Teluk Kalong, Daerah Kemaman, Terengganu Darul Iman”. The OBM recovery plant operates at a handling capacity of 1,080 m3/month. OBM (herein after referred as ‘Sludge’) is prescribed as scheduled waste under the First Schedule of the Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations, 2005. Under the Regulations, OBM is coded as SW311 ? Waste of Oil or Oily Sludge. Specifically, the OBM collected is confined to sludge generated from offshore drilling platforms. The sludge recovery will be processed by an Oil Sludge Separating System (OSS), which consists of hopper, process chamber, cyclone and scrubber. Oil will be recovered, as the final product of OSS. The objectives of this paper is to assess if the OBM plant fulfill the stated regulatory requirements and in accordance with EIA guidelines promulgated by the Department of Environment (DOE) in particular for air and water quality. As an initial scoping, the scope of this EIA study is confined to facilities / operations within the plant only. Off-site activities such as environmental and risk hazards associated with waste and product transfer outside the plant are not included in this study. In terms of land use compatibility, the project location is in line with the DOE’s Siting and Zoning Policy on Scheduled Waste Off-site Recovery Plant and hence, it is suitably located.

O-4

Title:  Environmental Education in Japanese Corporation:Nikkei225 company cases

Author(s): TAKATA Yuu (Toyama prefectural University)

          MATSUOKA Shion (Toyama prefectural University)

           KUNORI Noriyasu (Toyama prefectural University)

Japanese company's ISO 14001 environmental management system authentication acquisition rate from 4.3% in 1996 to 2008 74. 6% increased. Environmental management is ingrained in Japanese companies. The implementation rate of the environmental education expanded dramatically in this 15 years. The reason is that in the ISO 14001 standard requirements of 4.2.2 enforcement obligations for environmental education, and 78. 8% of companies in 2008 have opportunity of environmental education. Percentage of industry implementation of environmental education and its contents will vary greatly depending on industry. There is many manufacturing industries, and low service industry trends of implementation of environmental education. In this research, Official Survey on environmental management of the enterprise: the Ministry of the environment (2001 ~ 2008) that analyzed environmental education sector of implementation percentage. Also “Nikkei225” indicator: worldwide economic indicator,35 industry Environmental, CSR reports made corporate environmental education contents analysis. Conclusion is that two analyses make industry implementation percentage of corporate environmental education and implementation details. Current environmental management has become the strategic objectives in the corporate strategy and corporate environmental education in attention and consideration as a strategic management.

O-5

Title:  CSR Model of Environment-Related Corporation

Author(s): HAITANI Mizuki (Toyama National College of Technology)

            MIYASHIGE Tetsuya (Toyama National College of Technology)

The purpose of this paper is considering CSR model of environment-related corporation. The environmental problems are becoming seriously in recent years. To take examples, global warming, ozone depletion, etc. The society began to seek CSR(Corporation of Responsibility) like produce environment-conscious products, use environment-conscious material.

First, we gave a definition of the environment-related corporation. The Ministry of the Environment has estimate Environmental Industry. The range is based on the definition of OECD. Environmental Industry is “Adverse effect given to the environments such as water, the atmosphere, and the soils” and “associated problem in waste, the noise, and the ecosystem” are measured, prevented, reduced, it minimizes, and improved product and service are provided. As just described, definition is not clear. The Japan Machinery Federation classified environmental business into “environmental aid”, “waste treatment and recycle”, “environmental reclamation and creation”, and “Sustainable-Energy System”. “Waste treatment and recycle” have a profound effect on society because it accounts for half of the market. In this paper, we define environment-related corporation is waste treatment and recycle business.

Second, we surveyed CSR model of other industries. In automobile industry, TOYOTA is an example of taking CSR to the business model and acquiring profit. TOYOTA promptly worked on CSR and took CSR to the basic philosophy. It developed Prius that is an environmentally-friendly car. It appealed decrease in burdens on the environment to consumer. As a result, TOYOTA took CSR to the business model and acquired profit.

    Finally, we surveyed environment-related corporation works on CSR and elicit CSR model.

The result of the survey, we verified a hypothesis. The hypothesis is a long-term total cost is decreased by introducing the environmental system that stays one step ahead. And the needs are given by a policy. The model contributes to profit.

O-6

Title:  Extraction of SiO2 from waste glasses by alkali fusion  - Influence of alkali fluxes and crucibles on the condition of alkali fusion -\

Author: MORI Hidetsugu (Nihon University)

Influence of alkali fluxes and crucibles on the condition of alkali fusion was investigated.

KOH and NaOH were selected as an alkali flux. A Ni crucible or Al2O3 crucible was used. In the present study, sample solutions of K2SiO3 or Na2SiO3 were prepared by alkali fusion of SiO2KOH system or SiO2NaOH system. Preparation of the sample solutions was described as follows: reagent-grade raw materials ( SiO2, KOH and NaOH ) were mixed in air in prescribed compositions ( the compositions were SiO2 : KOH = 5 (g) : 45 (g) and SiO2 : NaOH = 5 (g) : 45 (g), respectively ), and a batch (50g) was melted by alkali fusion. The melting temperature was 500and the melting time was 3h. After melting by alkali fusion, the mixtures were naturally cooled. H2O was added to the mixtures, and K2SiO3 and Na2SiO3 solutions were then prepared, respectively. After washing the Ni and Al2O3 crucibles, the mass of each crucible was measured.

In the present study, the above procedure (①~④) was repeated several times in order to confirm the influence of the fluxes and crucibles on the condition of alkali fusion.

From the procedure, it was found that the masses decreased with increasing the repeating time for SiO2KOH system melted by using Ni crucible and SiO2NaOH system melted by using Al2O3 crucible, respectively.

From ICP analysis, Ni was confirmed in the K2SiO3 solution prepared by alkali fusion using the Ni crucible, which indicated that the surface of the crucible was melted by alkali fusion and the solution contained the Ni ion. In addition, the surface of the Al2O3 crucible was also melted by alkali fusion, i.e. Al was confirmed in the Na2SiO3 solution from the ICP analysis.

On the other hand, for SiO2NaOH system melted using Ni crucible, the decreasing of the mass did not depend on the repeating time : the mass increase on the 2nd fusion. In the present study, this phenomenon and the influence of alkali fluxes and the crucibles on the condition of the fusion were discussed based on the results of SEM, ICP, EDX, XRD and EPMA analyses.

O-7

Title of presentation: Fourth Generation Green Hybrid Conducting Polymer-Quantum Dot-Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells of High Efficiency and Stability.

Author(s): P.C. Mathur (Delhi University, India)

Organic pohotovoltaic (PV) devices have a bright future because of their low cost and environmental friendly processing techniques. The main hurdle in this field, which are coming in the way of commercialization of these devices are low photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) (< 5%) and low operating life (~103 hrs). we have therefore proposed a hybrid solar cell structure consisting of a conducting polymer, quantum dots of CdSe hybrid to single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The proposed structure is

Al/LiF/Salmon DNA/Conducting polymer (P3HT)/Quantum Dot(CdSe)-Linker(MPA)-Carbon Nanotubes(SWNT)/ITO

The important features of this PV structure is that it covers a very wide range of absorption 400-2000 nm considering the IR absorption by semiconducting SWNTs and optical absorption by P3HT and CdSe quantum dots. Photogenerated holes in P3HT, CdSe and SWNTs are collected at LiF, while electrons are collected at ITO electrode through SWNTs, salmon DNA layer blocks electrons from coming to Al because the DNA layer has very low LUMO level therefore does not permit the electrons to pass through. The PCE of this cell is high because impact ionization in CdSe quantum dots can produce more than one electron-hole pair per absorbed photon. The degradation of the solar cells is slowed down because LiF buffer layer prevents Al atoms from migrating into the device. Similarly ITO atoms are prevented from migrating through the device because CdSe-linker-SWNT layer is too thick (~1 μm). Preliminary results have shown that the efficiency of this PV device will be 7-8% and operating life ~2x104 hrs. this PV device will be from carbon emission and can be considered to be fourth generation futuristic solar cell.

O-8

Title:  Glass for various green energy applications

Author(s):   GANJOO Ashtosh (PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, USA)

                         McCAMY J. W (PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, USA)

                 ARBAB Mehran (PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, USA)

Glass plays an important role in various energy and ecological related technologies. It is one of the important components for the energy producing solar cells (crystalline and thin film PV) and also an important component for energy efficiency in buildings. In energy efficient buildings, important for our environment, low emissivity coated glass windows reduce the use of air conditioners in summer and heating in winter, thus reducing the energy usage and also helping the environment by reducing green house gases. The low-e windows act in such a way that IR waves (heat) from sun are blocked from entering the house/building due to the reflective nature of the coatings on glass and thus there is less need for air-conditioning in summer months. In winter, the heat from within the house/building is blocked from leaving thus resulting in low heat losses. This way, the energy usage is saved in summer and winter, thus reducing the energy requirements, reducing green house emissions and helping the environment by reducing the carbon footprint. The visible transmission of these low-e windows is significantly high, so there is no impact on the visibility.

In harvesting solar energy glass plays an important role, e.g., glass substrates for thin film solar cells, cover plates for c-Si solar cells, substrates for solar mirrors, and various other components. Solar cells are emerging as the main renewable energy producing technology, which is clean, does not create any pollution, is better for environment, can be reused and recycled and reduce the dependencies on fossil fuels. Since the cell efficiencies and performance of a solar harvesting device are directly related to the number of absorbed photons, the important consideration for glass to be used in solar application is a very high transmission in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Also, one of the biggest requirements for solar glass is its chemical durability and mechanical strength as it is exposed to harsh weather conditions, which include, rain, snow, sleet, hail, etc. In this talk, we will discuss various features of glass for different energy related applications.

O-9

Title:  Research on indentation tester based on pressure difference

Author(s): OKUNO Yoshihisa (Maizuru National College of Technology)

           KOBAYASHI Yohei (Maizuru National College of Technology)

This paper presents a indentation test machine with pressure control that is different from typical indentation test machines equipped with a load control system, which are large in size and expensive. The advantages of this machine are its small size, low cost and high accuracy.

The authors obtained the calibration curve, and determined the pushing force, strain of a bent metallic board, difference in test pieces, and accuracy as indentation tester using the machine. The developed machine is small in size and inexpensive making it suitable for various types of indentation tests.

The system consists of a indenter and vacuum chamber, and it can measure the hardness of test pieces through a bent metallic board. It controls the pushing depth of the indenter in test pieces by adjusting the pressure. A specification test is performed using a test piece made from silicon and a metallic board made of materials such as stainless steel and aluminum. The machine can be applied not only to hardness measurement as an indentation tester but also to the fabrication of a micro structure on a substrate by changing the indenter to imprint mask.

O-10

Title:  Research on wind velocity measurement system for off-shore floating -type wind turbine

Author(s): YAMAUCHI Naoyoshi (Maizuru National College of Technology)

           KOBAYASHI Yohei (Maizuru National College of Technology)

This paper presents a report for wind velocity measurement system for off-shore floating-type wind turbines. The authors developed this system using multiple tubes for offshore wind-power generators. The use of wind-power generators on sea is expected to encounter many problems such as unstable nacelle (floating type), irregular wind, and corrosion by salty sea breeze. In the developed wind speed measurement system, a wind cup anemometer and an aerovane were used for land and offshore wind turbines, respectively. These devices, however, have some disadvantages. For example, they have many moving parts and wind cup anemometers cannot determine wind direction.

The authors propose the use of Pitot tubes to measure wind speed and direction. Pitot tubes are usually used to measure wind speed in a particular direction from the static pressure and dynamic pressure difference. The developed measurement system has multiple Pitot tubes to measure wind speed and direction simultaneously. In the case of off-shore floating-type wind turbines, Pitot tubes are fixed on unstable nacelle. The authors invented a structure for maintaining the horizontal direction of Pitot tubes at any wind turbine attitude. They also evaluated this structure and the wind velocity measurement system.
O-11 Speed for Realization of Low-Carbon Society
Author(s): KATO Kosuke (Gifu National College of Technology)
KATO Shinji (Gifu National College of Technology)
TOMITA Mutuwo (Gifu National College of Technology)

The global warming is serious problem, and the reduction of CO2 emissions, namely, the realization of
low-carbon society is desired. Therefore, it is desired that the conventional servomotors widely used in
the industrial community are replaced with the synchronous reluctance motors (SynRMs) whose
efficiency is high even though they have no magnets.
The rotor position information is necessary to use SynRMs as servomotors. Rotor position sensors
introduce problems, however, because of their complicated wiring, additional space requirements and
restrictions placed on them by the environments in which motors are used. Consequently, it is desired that
the SynRMs are driven without the rotor position sensor.
Several rotor position sensorless estimation methods have been proposed. However, rotor position
sensorless estimation at low speeds is difficult with these methods, because the voltage signal used to
estimate the rotor position is small.
Therefore, the authors have proposed a new method, considering the extended e.m.f. (EEMF) and the
disturbance observer proposed by the authors, using high-frequency EEMF calculated from
high-frequency voltage and current with a disturbance observer. With the new proposed method, the
estimated rotor position  
is obtained directly because the position estimator is constructed on the stator
frame. To ”directly obtain”  
means that it is possible to estimate the rotor position accurately and
simply. With several of the other methods, only the estimation error of position  can be estimated. In
these methods, to obtain  
, simple integration must be used permitting estimation error, or a complex
estimator must be designed to improve accuracy.
The usefulness of the new proposed method has been demonstrated by simulation. In this paper, the
experiments show that the new proposed method is very useful.
O-12

Title:  Analysis of survival rate of planted trees on the afforestation bank for sequestration of CO2 in Sturt Meadows, Western Australia

Author(s):   KUROSAWA Katsuhiko (Seikei University)

                      HAMANO Hiroyuki (Center for Low Carbon Society Strategy)

                      KAWARASAKI Satoko (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)

                      TAKAHASHI Nobuhide (Shinshu University)

                      EGASHIRA Yasuyuki (Osaka University)

                      AIKAWA Shin-ichi (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)

                      UTSUGI Hajime (Hokkaido Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)

                      TANIUCHI Hiroyuki (Shikoku Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)

                      SAITO Masahiro (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)

                      SUGANUMA Hideki (Seikei University)

                      KOJIMA Toshinori* (Seikei University, Edith Cowan University)

                      HARPER Richard (Murcoch University)

                      LUFF Jon (Edith Cowan University)

                      STOCK William (Edith Cowan University)

                      LUND Mark (Edith Cowan University)

                      BANNISTER Mark (Edith Cowan University)

Development of banks at afforestation sites in arid land is useful for water catchment and the tree growth. An afforestation experiment aimed at carbon sequestration and fixation has been carried out at our afforestation site in arid land of Western Australia. The purpose of this study is to elucidate tree species and bank systems for this study experiment by analysis of the survival rate of trees. There were many cases that the survival rate of trees were considerably decreased at 5th, 19th, 60th months after planting trees. The decrease of those survival rate at 5th month might be caused by dry stress and/or softness of the bank soil. The rest decrease of those survival rate were suggested dry stress as a cause. Significant differences were detected between survival rate of C. obesa and those of 3 species ( E. camaldulensis, A. aneura and A. pruinocarpa), and there were many cases that survival rate of C. obesa was lower than other species. In many cases, survival rate of trees on normal bank were higher than those of the other types of bank, and the survival rate on normal bank was significantly higher than that on finger bank. Therefore we concluded that those species and the bank type are useful for afforestation on bank for carbon fixation.

O-13

Title:  High Performance Heat Exchanger with Scraping Temperature Boundary Layer

Author(s):   NOGAMI Hiroshi (Ichinoseki National College of Technology)

                      CHIBA Yoichi (Professor Emeritus, Ichinoseki National College of Technology, DFR, Co. Ltd.)

                      AONUMA Kiyoo (Ichinoseki National College of Technology, now at Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd.)

                      INOMATA Yasuyuki (Ichinoseki National College of Technology)

In recent years various approaches to reduce carbon dioxide emission from industries have been made, and recovery of the waste heat is one of these approaches.   Heat exchanger is one of the key facilities to recover the waste heat that is released as sensible heat of fluids.   In this study a new concept to raise efficiency of heat exchanger has been proposed.   The temperature boundary layer is scraped from moving heat transfer surface by rigid blades to remove the heat transfer resistance of the boundary layer.   Some prototypes of the heat exchangers of double-tube structure with this concept were made.   The inner tube of the heat exchanger rotates and the blades are set on both sides of the inner tube.   The performance of the heat exchanger was examined in various combinations of working fluids.   The results showed that the overall heat transfer coefficient, which is a key parameter to represent heat exchanger performance, increased with increase in revolution of the inner tube regardless of working fluids.   Thus the effectiveness of this new concept was confirmed.   The effect of the boundary layer scraping is remarkable in the liquid-liquid or liquid-steam systems, and the heat transfer coefficient increased by about ten times in some cases.   For the combination including gas, although this concept is useful, there still is a room to optimize the design of the heat exchangers to improve the performance.  It is expected that practical use of this heat exchanger is great help to recover the waste heat from the industries.  

O-14

Title:  Nuclear Energy Overview

Author(s): ISHIWATARI Yuki (The University of Tokyo)

Dr. James Lovelock, a well known scientist for proposing the Gaia hypothesis, sees nuclear energy as key to our planets future health.

 

“What we need now is a well planned and sustainable retreat from the polluted and degraded world today. The only way, I think, to do this is to welcome science and technology and make maximum use of environmentally friendly nuclear fission energy. We are an urban civilization and to survive the severe climate change soon due we need secure supplies of food, water and electricity. We cannot expect to go on burning fossil fuel nor establish a non-polluting way to do it in time. Except where electricity is powered by abundant water flow or geophysical heat, there is no safe alternative to nuclear energy.”

-   “The Revenge of Gaia” (www.jaero.or.jp/data/02topic/pdf/sympo06yokou.pdf)” -

Dr. Patrick Moore, known as one of the early members of Greenpeace, changed his view of nuclear energy (for peaceful use) from strong opposition to strong support.

“Nuclear energy is the only non-greenhouse gas-emitting power source that can effectively replace fossil fuels and satisfy global demand.”

-   “Nuclear Statement to the US Congressional Committee” -

(www.greenspirit.com/logbook.cfm?msid=70)

Mankind is having an increased effect on the environment through greenhouse gas emission; a very important and growing concern. Generally, nuclear power is seen as a method for reducing greenhouse gas emission while meeting the world’s increasing energy demand.

As one of the academics on the nuclear science and technology, the author would like to introduce the nuclear energy overview. The presentation is to briefly review the physics, technology, history, present condition, recent R&D activities and future perspectives of the nuclear fission energy.

O-15

Title:  Numerical simulation of pollutant transport from floating cages in river

Authors:     TRAN Thi Ngoc Trieu (Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata, Japan)

            LE Song Giang (Hochiminh city University of Technology, Vietnam)

In recent year, with developing all over country of aquaculture, basa catfish has kept important position and contributed to economic development in Vietnam. However, aquaculture activities have faced with environmental risk and aquacultures diseases that cause quality of surface water has usually pollution and reducing total of basa fish yield. At present, fish farming in floating cages in Cuulong Delta is developing very quickly. Density and location of fish cages have not been set scientifically that affected to water quality. So keeping close control of pollutant transport in fish farming area is an important goal. Assessment of the environmental situation will be a basic of planning and developing fish cages. Therefore, constructing a model calculates of simulation of substance transport in river is necessary.

The paper presented a 3D model for substance transport in river and its application for simulation of pollutant transport in Hau river due to floating cages. 3D flow-field was solved by logarithmic distributing 2D flow-field of averaged height. Pollutant transport was calculated by solving its full 3D transport equation. The 2D continuum and momentum equations were solved by finite difference method with ADI scheme of Ponce-Yabusaki. The 3D transport equation was solved by finite volume method with ADI scheme of Douglas – Gunn in “sigma” transformed co-ordinate. The model was tested over analytical solution. Some preliminary results of simulation for pollutant transport of My Hoa Hung floating cages area (An Giang province) are also presented.

O-16

Title: Detection of denitrifying bacteria by tyramide signal amplification-fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH)

Author(s): AOKI Masataka (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

          MAETANI Kouta (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

           ARAKI Nobuo (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

     KAWAKAMI Shuji (Nagaoka University of Technology)

     YAMAGUCHI Takashi (Nagaoka University of Technology)

 The biological removal of nitrogen compounds is essential for most modern wastewater treatment facilities to preserve environmental water resources. Denitrifying bacteria play an important role of the removal of nitrogen compounds from wastewater, where denitrification is coupled to the nitrification process. Therefore, number of denitrifying bacteria is necessary to control the process in high efficiency. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes makes possible specific identification and detection of individual bacterial cells within complex microbial communities. However, the FISH based the 16S rRNA does not appear to be suitable for comprehensive detection of denitrifying bacteria because the capacity for denitrification is found among a wide variety of taxonomic groups mainly within the bacteria.  The key step of biological denitrification is catalyzed by nitrite reductase (nirS or nirK). Those genes are useful targets to detect communities of denitrifying bacteria in activated sludge samples.  However, functional genes are usually low abundance in a cell, resulting in insufficient signal for microscopic observation with FISH. To overcome this problem, we applied a two-pass tyramide signal amplification-FISH (TSA-FISH) method with a polydeoxyribonuculeotide probe (poly-probe) to detect nitrite reductase gene in denitrifying bacteria. Achromobacter cycloclastes was chosen as a model bacterium for this study. The FISH probe that labeled a large number of hapten was synthesized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the nirK from A.cycloclastes. The optimized protocol showed high signal-to-noise ratio and high detection frequency of nirK in single cell level.

O-17

Title:  Assessment of Sources Variations in Potable Water Quality Model Including Organic, Inorganic and Trace Metals Constituents

Author(s): Mst. Shamsun Nahar (University of Toyama)

            Jing ZHANG (University of Toyama)

The evaluation of water sources and the regulation of water of healthier water intake are essential for animals to maintain proper osmotic homeostasis. The results obtained in the design and calibration of a deterministic natural drinking water quality model from different water sources (tap, ground, spring water) in Toyama prefecture (Japan) is recognized for its good water quality along its geographical course. The water quality indicators studied are major ions, total organic and inorganic carbon, volatile organic carbon and trace metals constituents from natural sources. The major ions were used for Stiff diagrams to identify different water masses by visual comparison. One type, delineated as Ca-HCO3, is found in Toyama ground, spring, and tap water. The relationship between alkali, alkali-earth metals and HCO3- shows little difference between deep and shallows ground water. The level of trace of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, Zn, Sr, Hg, were determine in groundwater, spring water, and tap water sources in some natural sources of Toyama prefecture using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Physicochemical quality of water was affected by the origin of water sources. Water from tap water contained more VOCs than ground and spring VOCs matter and less metal than water from groundwater. The effective concentration limit of the toxicity of volatile organic carbon (VOCs) was quantified by headspace GC-MS. The proposed model gives a correct evaluation of the organic, inorganic and trace heavy metals indicator studied, and may be used in natural clean water quality managements.

O-18

Title:  Improvement of the Biotic ligand model by prediction of stability constant

Author(s): HOSODA Satomi (Tokyo National College of Technology)

           SHOJI Ryo (Tokyo National College of Technology)

The Biotic ligand model (BLM) of acute metal toxicity to organisms is based on the idea that mortality occurs when the metal-biotic ligand complex reaches a critical concentration. The concentration of the complex is estimated by using the stability constants (KM) of metal and biotic ligand binding reaction. KM is determined on the basis of a lot of experimental measurements. In previous studies, KM value for five metals (Cd,Co,Co,Cu and Zn) have been reported.

In this study, KM was predicted by a linear regression model. The prediction was performed on the Quantitative Structure Activity relationships (QSARs) using Physico-chemical properties. The QSARs attempt to relate statistically the biological activity to their physic-chemical structure. Physico-chemical properties such as atomic radius, electronegativity, stability constants of metal-protein complex are decided by the structure of metal and are used to predict biological activity.

The prediction of KM was improved by using atomic radius and stability constant of metal-metallothionein complex. Metallothionein is a detoxification protein which binds a variety of essential, toxic and pharmacologically active metals. By the prediction, environmental risks of metal can be examined without any experiment even though no imformation on the KM of the metal has been reported.

However, KM depends on variety of metal and species. The dependence of KM on organisms cannot be predicted by this study. Therefore, parameters to describe various properties on test species are needed to predict the toxicity to the specific organism.

O-19

Title:  Studies on adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Nirmali seed from aqueous solution

Author(s):   PANDIAN Lakshmipathiraj (Seikei University, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo, Japan)

                      SUBRAMANIAN Umamaheswari (Ethiraj college for women, Chennai, India)

GUNDAMADUGU Bhaskar Raju (National Metallurgical Laboratory, CSIR Madras complex, Chennai, India)

SWARNA Prabhakar (National Metallurgical Laboratory, CSIR Madras complex, Chennai, India)

                      GANDHIRAJ Caroling (Ethiraj college for women, Chennai, India)

                      KATO Shigeru (Seikei University, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo, Japan)

                      KOJIMA Toshinori* (Seikei University, Kichijoji, Musashino, Tokyo, Japan)

The removal of Cr(VI) was examined using the seeds of the plant species Strychnos Potatorum. The plant is grown in India and is called as Nirmali tree or clearing nut tree. The dried Nirmali seeds were powdered and used as adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR and SEM-EDX pattern. The SEM morphological pattern revealed that the powder has fibrous nature and large surface area. The functional groups such as hydroxyl and carbonate are observed from the FTIR study. The zeta potential measurements have indicated negative surface charge similar to that of natural anionic polyelectrolyte. Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Niramli seed powder and adsorption equilibrium time was evaluated. The influence of pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration and different anions were investigated upon the removal of Cr(VI). The removal of Cr(VI) was better in the acidic medium and maximum removal was found to be at pH 1.0. The presence of Cl- showed no influence on the adsorption of Cr(VI) whereas, the presence of other anions such as NO3- and SO42- influenced the adsorption process. The results obtained from equilibrium adsorption studies were found to fit in to Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the maximum uptake of Cr(VI) was found to be 59 mg g-1. The rate of removal of Cr(VI) followed the pseudo second order rate kinetic model. It is observed that the initial stage of the adsorption was influenced by electrostatic force of interaction between adsorbate and adsorbent molecule.

O-20

Title:  Metal leaching and the toxicity of persimmon tannin and chromate plates

Author(s): SATO Takanobu (Tokyo National College of Technology)

                      SHOJI Ryo     (Tokyo National College of Technology)

Toxicity of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) was focused on with a publication of EU RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) directive. Therefore the search for an alternative material for the conversion coating becomes an urgent task. The persimmon tannin is one of the several environmentally acceptable alternatives with equivalent or better performance properties. The aim of this study was to clarify the reduction of the toxicity with leaching of metal reduced by the persimmon tannin as a replacement for chromate plate.

The corrosion products of persimmon tannin plate and chromate plate were characterized by an X-ray diffraction (XRD).

The XRD patterns of the corrosion products revealed the high crystallinity and monophase state of zinc hydroxychlorides (Zn5(OH)8Cl2H2O).

The samples were eluted in water (at a ratio of 1:10; solid to liquid ratio) for 6 hour periods. The experiments were carried out at room temperature. After filtration, the concentrations of chromium and zinc in aqueous samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (Agilent, 7500s). The toxicity of the leachate was determined with ROTAS (rapid onsite toxicity audit system) assay. The metal concentrations and toxicity of the leachates were higher when chromate plate was leached.

These results indicated that the performance of the persimmon tannin plate was better than that of chromate plate.

O-21

Title:  17th Asian Symposium on Ecotechnology

Accumulation and adsorption of copper in the callus

Author(s): TANAKA Yuya (Tokyo National College of Technology)

          SHOJI Ryo (Tokyo National College of Technology)

This paper discusses the copper accumulation in callus as well as the responses to copper exposure. Vegetable selected for this investigation was cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). Tha cabbage callus was treated for 2 weeks with either CuCl2 at four concentrations (5×10-3, 5×10-4 and 5×10-5 M). The accumulation of copper was analyzed using an ICP-AES analyzer. The accumulation of copper could be modelled using exchange isotherms, such as the Langmuir isotherms; Q=k1/k2D(1-e-k2). The k1 and k2 are sorption coefficients. Linear regression analysis gave the expressions for k1 = 9.29×10-3[day-1] and k22.08×10-1[day-1]. The Langmuir model fitted well with the observed data on the accumulation of copper (R2 = 0.98).

In another experiment, cabbage was grown in a field trial. The cabbage grown in Cu-contaminated soils was harvested at 112 days. Accumulation of copper in the cabbage was analyzed using an ICP-AES analyzer. The Langmuir model the same sorption coefficients deriwed by the callus experiment was used to predict the accumulation of copper in whole cabbage body.The Langmuir model fitted the accumulation of copper in the whole cabbage body (R2 = 0.82).

The accumulation of copper in the whole cabbage body was depended sorption onto the callus.

O-22

Recent United Nations Activities in Ecotechnologies Development

Author(s): AGBOOLA Julius Ibukun (United Nations University- Institute of Advanced Studies Operating Unit Ishikawa/Kanazawa)

Sustainable use and allocation of aquatic resources including water resources requires the implementation of appropriate environmentally friendly technologies which are both efficient and adapted to local condition. However, such technologies that seek to fulfill human needs while causing minimal ecological disruption have their attendant problems. This paper reviews some of the inherent challenges such as low level of technology development in developing states together with social, economic and gender inequities resulting in vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing communities, and the large amount of energy required to power these technologies amongst others. Amongst possible reconciliation options, the need to provide traditional knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk will be imminent.

O-23

Title: Development of Circularly Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar onboard Microsatellite for Next Generation of Earth Diagnos

Author(s): SRI SUMANTYO Josaphat Tetuko (Chiba University)

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a multi-purpose sensor that can be operated in all-weather and day-night time. Recently, the SAR sensor is operated in linear polarization (HH, VV and its combination) with limited retrieved information. The characteristic of the conventional SAR sensor is bulky, high power, sensitive to Faraday rotation effect etc. Recently, we are developing the Circularly Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (CP-SAR) onboard small satellite to diagnosis the Earth or retrieving the physical information of Earth surface. In this research, the next generation of CP-SAR sensor is developed to radiate and receive elliptically polarized wave. The sensor is designed as a low cost, light, low power or safe energy, low profile configuration to transmit and receive left-handed circular polarization (LHCP) and right-handed circular polarization (RHCP), where the transmission and reception are both working in RHCP+LHCP. Then these elliptically polarized waves are employed to generate the axial ratio image (ARI). This sensor is not depending to the platform posture, and it is available to avoid the effect of Faraday rotation during the propagation in ionosphere. Therefore, the high precision and low noise image is expected to be obtained by the CP-SAR. For this purpose, we are also developing the CP-SAR onboard unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for ground testing of this sensor. In this paper, we introduce the present result of development of our CP-SAR UAV and Microsatellite.

O-24

Title:  Experiments and theoretical analysis of fingering flow in dry snowpack

Author(s): KATSUSHIMA Takafumi (Nagaoka University of Technology)

           YAMAGUCHI Satoru (Snow and Ice Research Center, NIED)

KUMAKURA Toshiro (Nagaoka University of Technology) 

          SATO Atsushi (Snow and Ice Research Center, NIED) 

Runoff from snowpack is an important factor of hydrological cycle in snowpack season. It is also important for an ecosystem in rivers and lakes, and acid snowmelt water cause “spring acid shock”.

Infiltration of fingering flow in snowpack is a dominant phenomenon, although detail of the theoretical evidence has not been known. In soil physics, many researchers have proposed the theoretical evidence of fingering flow in sands with the mathematical analysis and the laboratory experiments. For example, gravity force acts as a destabilizing effect, on the other hand, interfacial tension acts as a stabilizing effect.

The fingering flow is initiated and developed when the gravity force is dominant and the interface between water and air is under unstable condition. The developing process of fingering flow in dry sands has been proposed based on this idea.

The objective of this study is to show the developing process of fingering flow in dry snowpack. The infiltration experiments were conducted using three snow samples which have different ranges of diameter. The fingering flows were developed in the larger diameters of the snow samples, and the stable wetting fronts were observed in the experiments of the snow samples of the smallest diameters. Experimental results show that the stabilize effect of capillary force is dominant to the destabilize effect of gravity force in the snow of the small radius. The developing process of fingering flow in the dry sands was used to reveal the criterion of stable/unstable condition in our experiments. These results show good agreement with criterion for the fingering condition in the dry snow. It suggests that the process of the fingering flow in the dry snowpack can be explained by the similar theory in the dry sands.

O-25

Title: Safety Assessment of Oxidizing Slag Discharged from EAF Used in Normal Steelmaking by Conventional Leaching Test and Biological Evaluation.

Author(s): SEIJI Yokoyama (Toyohashi University of Technology)

                      TATSUYA Shimomura (Graduate School of Toyohashi University of Technology)

                      NIK Hisyamdin Mohd Nor (Graduate School of Toyohashi University of Technology)

                        HIDEYUKI Kanematsu (Suzuka National College of Technology)

           TOSHIYUKI Takahashi (Miyakonojo National College of Technology)

                      AKIKO Ogawa (Suzuka National College of Technology)

                      JUNJI Sasano (Toyohashi University of Technology)

                      MASANOBU Izaki (Toyohashi University of Technology)

Safety assessment of oxidizing slag discharged from an electric arc furnace (EAF) used in normal steel making was performed by investigations of formation of bio-film, a colony forming assay using hamster cell and phytoplankton (chlorella) growth as well as the conventional leaching test (JIS K0058-1). In the leaching test, the slag of 100 g in weight was dissolved in the water of 1 L in volume for 6 h. Initial pH of the water was 6.0. The investigations of a cytotoxic evaluation and growth of chlorella were performed using this eluate. An investigation of formation of bio-film was made by immersing the slag in natural sea water sampled in Ise Bay. The leaching test revealed that the eluted concentrations of environmentally regulated substances were less than the environmental quality standards (EQSs) for soil. The eluted concentration of zinc exceeded the EQSs for spawning and rearing areas of aquatic life in costal water of the conservation of the living environment. However, the eluted concentration obtained in this leaching test cannot be applied to the EQSs for conservation of the living environment. Chlorella in culture medium with this eluate propagated more than that without this eluate as a control. The substances dissolved in this eluate worked as nourishment. This eluate did not have toxic consequences for the cell used in this study. Bio-film formed on the slag in natural sea water. Because the EAF oxidizing slag used in this study contained much FeO, the FeO seemed to work in favor of the formation of bio-film. Consequently, the EAF oxidizing slag was judged to be safe.

O-26

Title: environmental conservation by utilizing regional resources

Author(s): MINAMIKAWA aki (Ishikawa National College of Technology)

         KUMAZAWA eiji (Ishikawa National College of Technology)

Moso bamboo has occured serious environmental problems in various part of Japan for decades. Bamboo has sprawled and invaded to satoyama-forest. Actually, there is 659ha abandoned bamboo thicket area in Kanazawa city. Generally speaking, rampant bamboo growth causes some problems as follows.

1. simplified biodiversity.

2.deterioration of keeping water in forest.

3.deterioration of CCS(carbon dioxide capture and storage) capacity in forest.

So,it is required that bamboo sprawl must be under a system which promotes effective utilization of bamboo resources,however there are costs obstacle recycling them.

In this paper we report the NPO"e-cycle"'s activities and consider its social significance, because the organization tries to utilize huge muss of bamboo timber (by thinning) by following three steps.

1. conservation of forest.

  To thin out bamboo thicket based on ecological forest survey.

2. utilization of unproccessed bamboo.

  To reduce bamboo timber by thinning to chips or powder.

3. improvement of farming base.

  To utilize unproccessed bamboo as resources for improvement of agricultural field.

The chips can be used as soil amendments , material of water purification or filter medium of agricultural underdrainage, and so on. The other hand, the powder can be used as fermentation material of compost.Those resources are used to each condition of farmlands.

The "e-cycle" activities aim to realize the ecological recycle system through utilization of bamboo resources for environmental friendly farming base. In addition, opening the possibility of unprossecced bamboo gives economic effect. The more mass consumption realize the lower costs in comparison the conventional proccesses ; craft products made of bamboo, charcoal bamboo etc..

In conclusion, we pointed out that the e-cycle system is one of a new model of environmental conservation.

O-27

Title: Development of a forest species classification method by using high resolution satellite imagery

Author(s): TSUJINO Kazuhiko (Fukui National College of Technology)

                      KAWAMURA Makoto (Toyohashi University of Technology)

           TSUJIKO Yuji (Toyohashi University of Technology)

A forest species classification method based on a decision tree method and using high resolution satellite imagery is proposed in this study. The proposed method consists of two parts. In the first part the extraction of forest areas are extracted using the maximum likelihood method. In the second part 10 kinds of forest species are classified in the extracted forest areas using the decision tree method and IKONOS pan-sharpen multi-spectral data. In the decision tree method the parameters to divide two branches are obtained from the spectral analysis or the texture analysis of the IKONOS data for each forest species.

The study was carried out for a mountain area located in the Yamato and Minami district, Gifu Prefecture, in Japan. The Japanese cedar, the hinoki cypress, the Japanese red pine, the pine death area, the mixed coniferous tree, the Japanese larch, the oak, the chestnut, the mixed broadleaf tree and the bamboo which are distributed in the area, are classified for the six test sites, whose indivudial size is 1000 m square. The results of forest species discrimination were evaluated using independent field survey data (point data and forest type maps). It is concluded that the comprehensive extraction accuracy in all forest species is about 72% and the proposed method is applicable to the forest monitoring and the planning as a useful tool.

O-28

Title:  Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on alpha tracks in CR-39 plastic detector

Author(s): MORIWAKI Yui (Maizuru National College of Technology)

            ISHIKAWA Ippei (Maizuru National College of Technology)

CR-39 has been used as material of the glasses lens originally. Recently, CR-39 is often used as a solid-state nuclear detector. It also exhibits good properties for radiation measurements. CR-39 is extensively used as radiation measurements in space. Because there is no power supply structure that is influenced by cosmic rays in CR-39 as other detectors. The studies about CR-39 are evolved by developing several things by JAXA and others. But there are still some problems to be solved. At one of the problems, it takes a long time to analyze CR-39. There is a disadvantage of expensiveness though the high-speed analysis microscope is developed. On the other hand, it has been reported the research paper that the track etch rate increased when CR-39 detectors were exposed to ultraviolet rays (UV). However, up till now relatively few studies have been reported on effect of UV irradiation on CR-39. There is very little quantitative data on the relation between the track etch rate and UV irradiation on CR-39.

In the present work, the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on alpha tracks in CR-39 plastic detector were further studied. After the treatment of CR-39 with KOH solutions, this diameter of etch pit was larger expanded than without UV. This result shows that the diameter of etch pit was dependent on the UV irradiation time. It was surmised that the method to shorten analysis time.

O-29

Title: The present condition of localization of Japanese company in China.

Author: Yamazaki Atsuko(Toyama National College of Technology)*1,Fukami Tamaki(Toyama National College of Technology)*2

       *1:student

         Phone number  0764693325

         e-mail address  atsuko.yamazaki.ib1.2010@gmail.com

       *2:supervisor

         Phone number  0766865200

         e-mail address  fukami@nc-toyama.ac.jp

  Today, a lot of Japanese company has its plants or branches in foreign countries. Most of them plan to localize the management of plants or branches in order to cope well with local demands or problems, to reduce the personnel costs and so on.

  Conventionally, localization of company is thought of just a replacement of human resources. So, it is considered that localization of company is achieved simply by promoting local people to managerial post.

  However, there is another interpretation and definition of localization of company. By quoting from that definition, localization of company is considered that it is achieved by training local people or people who are delegated to plants or branches from head office as a managerial staff.

  In the case of that the person who is going to be promoted to managerial post is local person; he (or she) needs to understand fully the intentions of head office, and tell local employees it fully.

  On the other hand, in the case of that the person who is going to be promoted to managerial post is a person; who is delegated to plants or branches from head office as a managerial staff, they have known the intentions of head office already, so, in this case, what is important is that how to tell local employees it fully. In order to it, the person who is delegated need to know local culture, customs and so on. Of course, language skill is absolutely essential.

  On a basis of these studies, I would like to suggest the importance of cross-cultural communication and mutual understanding. It is difficult to understand their own culture and the cultural gap between their own culture and the other, but when we think about localization of company, it must be achieved by training people and better choice of effective management must be sought always. Finally, I would like to deliberate a measure to achieve “real” localization of company. 

 

O-30

Title: Problems and remedies of cram schools

Author(s): Ayami Sawada(Toyama National College of Technology)

           Makoto Shimizu(Toyama National College of Technology)

    The purposes of the students who go to cram schools are to pass an examination of high schools or the universities.  So to pass an examination of them is necessary for the maintenance of the management.  But in fact there are common problems in the business circles of cram schools.  First, a gap of motivations of teachers, second, the teachers rate of resigning from their jobs, third, the rate of students to resign from their cram schools.  Then, I inspect that they are common problems in cram schools.  And the purpose of the study is to find remedies for them.

     I’m going to check up on cram schools of Toyama to inspect these problems.  And I think that to maintain the motivation of teachers is important to improve these problems.  So I utilize “a theory of motivations” “a theory of managements that is desire of personnel” and prove a remedy.

O-31

Title:  A Fast Spoken Term Detection Method based on Hough Transform

Authors:     KANEKO Taisuke (Toyohashi University of Technology)

          AKIBA Tomoyosi (Toyohashi University of Technology)

Recently, the chance to use speech and video data on the Web has been increased. The function to detect the part where the retrieval word is originated for the voice data is requested. In this study, we propose a novel method for Spoken Term Detection (STD). STD is the task that, given a spoken document and a query term, finds the positions in the document where the term occurs. STD has been actively studied in the context of speech processing. We use the recognition result of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) as spoken document. The result of ASR contains miss-recognition. And when the voice data is large scale, the processing time becomes a problem too. The detection method should be fast and robust for miss-recognition.

The proposed method can be considered as using metric space indexing for approximate string matching problem, where the distance is defined between a phoneme and a position in the target spoken document. This is inspired by the Hough Transform method for finding straight-lines in images. Consider a plane where the x and y axis correspond to the phoneme sequence of the spoken document obtained by using ASR and the phoneme sequence of the input query, respectively. For each grid point on the plane, the distance between the phoneme in the document at x and the phoneme in the query at y is defined. The distance at a grid point is analogous to the pixel density at an image data point.

 The proposed method does not require the use of thresholds to limit the output, instead being able to output the results in increasing order of distance. It can also deal easily with the multiple candidates

obtained via ASR. The results of preliminary experiments show promise for achieving fast STD.

O-32

Title:  The Strength Analytical of the Propeller for Model Airplane

Author(s): SHIKATANI Yuji (Kagawa National College of Technology)

          FUKUI Satoshi (Kagawa National College of Technology)

The propeller is rotated with a small engine, and there is a model airplane that flies by the get impellent now. There are various area in the model airplane field from the beginner to the competition. In the game using this model airplane, it aims at the improvement of various performance. Therefore, the development of propella is a continuous process of trial and error. The model airplane for top regulation requires to fly faster than other competitor.The model airplane get impellent by propella jointed to engine.A large load joins each part when the model airplane flies. The part that concentrates most loads and shows a complex state of the stress is a propeller installed on the model airplane point. The factor of the load is various like the centrifugal force and the air resistance force, etc. The propeller generates an impellent necessary to fly. This study is a finite element analysis for a propeller of the model airplane in flight design engineering. A propeller have to endure stress when the model airplane flies. The force applied to the propeller is the centrifugal force, the lifting force and the air resistance force. Therefore, the safety strength estimation design of the propeller is indispensable for fly safely.

In our study, the highest stress concentration area is estimated by a finite element analysis. And I did the safety evaluate.

O-33 A Numerical Simulation on Thermal performance and ground temperature of vertical
pile-foundation heat exchangers
Yohanes J.T. Cahyono(1)*, and Young-duk, Kim(2)
(1) Researcher, Institute of Environmental Research (DAEWON), Kwandong University, South Korea,
joni@kd.ac.kr
(2) Professor, Environmental Engineering of Kwandong University, South Korea,
kimyd2002@gmail.com
Ground-source (Geothermal) heat pump (GSHP) systems can achieve a higher coefficient of
performance than conventional air-source heat pump (ASHP) systems. For the design of a GSHP system,
it is necessary to accurately predict the heat extraction and injection rates of the heat exchanger. To assess
the geothermal energy for a district heating system in Sokcho, Korea, a case study of ground heat
exchangers for a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is presented in this study. Several types of
vertical pile-foundation heat exchangers selected are intercompared to determine the most efficient one.
Heat transfer performance is evaluated by numerical method, which couples heat convection and
conduction through water in pipeline, concrete pile and soil. The present study is aimed to provide
guidelines for better design of large-scale GCHP in a district heating system in Sokcho.
The fully turbulent pipe flow is concerned in this work, the most traditional standard k–e model with the
standard wall functions is applicable. A very traditional methodology, but not the best numerical approach
have been applied at present. It should be pointed out that the assumption of fully developed turbulence,
negligible molecular viscosity, constant-shear and local equilibrium wall treatment could be inapplicable
when the flow exhibits in or near the laminar, transitional, low-turbulent region. More advanced
numerical method should be considered if the flow pattern appears to be in such region, where the present
numerical method may overestimate the water-to-pipe convection and lead to unreasonable assessment of
the heat transfer performance of the pile-foundation heat exchangers
O-34

Title: Modeling of the Bio-Electric Potential Response Characteristics of Mushroom

Author(s):                   YANAGIBASHI Hideyuki (Kanazawa Technical College)

                      HIRAMA Junji (Kanazawa Institute of Technology)

  Mushrooms have much attracted attentions as a healthy food, since they contain functional constituents. Increased demand makes mushroom farming very popular. However, the farming conditions have been based on the farmer’s experience and scientific studies lag behind. In previous studies, the relationship between the bio-electric potential and the morphogenetic properties of mushrooms was investigated for accurate growth control. As the results, it was concluded that changes in the bio-electric potential and the morphogenetic properties are closely related.

In this study, the bio-electric potential responses to the external stimulations such as wavelength of light and temperature were analyzed and the characteristics were modeled as an electric circuit. The electric circuit consists of simple elements such as DC current voltage source, RC integral circuit and oscillator. Especially, it was found out that the bio-electric potential includes 1/f2 fluctuation component. Based on the model, a new type of environmental control system in the mushroom factory used mushroom as bio-sensor was suggested. The system has characteristic of the feedback environmental control in the real time used the bio-electric potential of fruit body of mushroom as an index. The system will be adapted to SPA (Speaking Plant Approach) -style plant factory. It is considered that complicated cultivation for individual taste will be realized automatically by the system under any environment.

O-35

Title:  Landslides and its Emergency Response Plan in Malaysia

Author(s): MUHAMAD NASIRUDDIN Yahya (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia) 

         MUSTAFA KAMAL Abdul Aziz (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia) 

This scientific research on landslides and its emergency response plan is to link between hazard and people by looking into the phenomena whereby most hazards are actually not entirely natural but their very definition relates to their impact upon land use patterns and processes societies and economics. In order to study landsides (the hazard) it has to be classified by their causal processes, spatial occurrence, scale of impact on human communities and activities. Hazard has to be understood by their causal physical processes in order to produce effective risk assessment and hazard management. The landslides impact interconnected to social, economic and demographic impact which can produce loss of life, property and livelihood and community stress and strain. Perception of landslides hazard, human response toward hazard are affected by people perception of hazard.

The hazard prediction by increased research into hazard frequency and occurrences may allow improved prediction to reduce the impact of hazard.  Hazard prevention and management states that hazard can never be totally prevented, but their consequences and causes may be alleviated by hazard prevention methods, education and hazard management techniques.

Pre-disaster protection involves risk assessment which includes the identification of hazard, the accumulation of data and the preparation of loss estimate. It also consists of mitigation measures which are taken in advance of disaster strikes aimed at decreasing or eliminating loss. Various long term measures such as the construction engineering works, insurance and land use planning are used. The third item is preparedness that reflects the extent to which a community is alert to disaster and cover shorter term emergency planning, hazard warning, temporary evacuation procedures plus the stock piling of supply.

While natural hazard cannot be prevented, they only become disaster because affected communities are vulnerable and unprepared. Early warning system has been proven beyond doubt to save life and reduce economic losses at all levels, but they still not an integral part of disaster management and risk reduction globally. Nor is early action (the culture of prevention as the Hyogo Framework for Action called it) an effective and timely response to early warning.  Early warning without early action is not enough, they can do more to reduce loss of life and protect livelihoods that can be achieved through emergency response alone.