ASET Session1 Technical Session Poster Presentation Summaries

P-1

Title: Sustainable environmental planning based on environmental measurements by regional cooperation

Author(s): YOSHIMURA Ryou (Fukui National College of Technology)

                      ITOU Tohru (Fukui National College of Technology)

                      TSUJINO Kazuhiko (Fukui National College of Technology)

                      TSUJIKO Yuji (Toyohashi University of Technology)

The environmental problem has become aggravated by the influence of the deforestation and the carbon dioxide exhaust. In order to understand or solve the actual environmental problems, it is important to measure the actual environmental condition directly in daily life. Then, "Environmental measurement according to citizens' generations and the activity levels", "Data collection", "Establishment of a sustainable environmental evaluation method based on the spatial data analysis", and "Continued consideration enlightenment to the environment" were set as the purpose of this project. We carried out the delivery class by using measuring equipments in elementary schools and junior high schools. Particularly actual vegetation condition measured by the equipment was compared with satellite NDVI imageries. Results are shown below.

(1) The environmental measurement manual recording "How to use of the machine" and "Meaning of the measured value" was able to be made.

(2) The measurement data obtained in delivery class were stored in Geographic Information System (GIS). As the result, the thematic map of a Leaf Area Index (LAI) map was able to be made.

(3) The environmental change from the past to present was able to be analyzed by using multi-temporal satellite imageries. These results made citizen's understanding about local environment to more easier.

P-2

Title:  Education and Business Ethics

Author(s): MINAMI Kanae (Toyama National College of Technology)

    MIYASHIGE Tetsuya (Toyama National College of Technology)

 In recent years, corporate scandals have been rapidly increasing and ethical behaviors are demanded on them. So, in this paper, to educate business ethics to employees, the corporate can remain minimum of scandal damage. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to clarify educating business ethics can remain minimum of corporate scandal damage.

 First, we separate off corporate scandals to intentional scandals and accidental scandals. This report picks accidental scandals up, because all firms probably have potential possibilities happening accidental scandals.

 Second, we show corporate culture effective against business ethics. To ingrain business ethics, firms are requires to fix corporate philosophy as business ethics. Establishing corporate philosophy is led to corporate culture. Then, symbolic action arises after employees' ideas are integrated and it creates a power to deal with corporate scandals. Integrated ideas enhance employees' motivation to cope with scandals.

 Finally, we investigated two cases; one case is group of companies which can maintain good condition financially after corporate scandals and the other is another group of companies which cannot run financially.

 The result of this study, we clarified symbolic action is necessary to manage with corporate scandals. Therefore we clarified educating business ethics can remain minimum of corporate scandal damage.

P-3

Title: Discussion on Temperature Data as an Effective Teaching Material for Improving Statistical Sense

Author(s): IMAZAWA Akio (Kanazawa Technical College)

            NAOE Nobuyuki (Kanazawa Technical College)

In this study, we discuss the use of temperature data as an effective teaching material for improving students’ statistical sense. The conclusion of the study is that we can organize effective classes for improving statistical sense employing temperature data.

In Japan, we are faced with the problem of declining of people’s scientific abilities. Among these is the lack of the ability to apply statistical skills. Many people have studied mathematical statistics at high schools and at higher educational institutes, but most of them have difficulty in using statistical skills in practice.

One of the most important reasons for this phenomenon is that mathematical statistics is taught in classes with more stress on mathematical formulation than on students’ intuitive understanding. Consequently, students are apt to think that the logic of mathematical statistics is completely different from that we use in daily life. They are also apt to think that it is difficult for ordinary people to understand mathematical statistics.

However, the logic of mathematical statistics originated in the intuitive judgments of daily life, and becomes more sophisticated and systematized over time. This means that students can understand the thought underlining mathematical statistics, in other words “statistical sense”, if they connect the logic of daily life to the logic of mathematical statistics using appropriate materials. And, temperature data has many desirable attributes.

The most important element of temperature data is familiarity; it is natural for us to indicate temperature in numerical values and we can understand the values intuitively. It is also true that temperature data can be analyzed from many view points; variances, trends, correlations, cycles, etc. By using temperature data in the class room, the teacher can sensibly bring students from the intuitive judgments in daily life to the logic of mathematical statistics.

P-4

A Problem Based Learning Initiative for Women Students

at Toyama National College of Technology

 -Development of an iPod Application for Children with Special Needs- 

Authors: OHASHI Chisato(Toyama National College of Technology)

         TSUKADA Akira(Toyama National College of Technology)

         ASO Tsukasa(Toyama National College of Technology)

         COOPER Todd(Toyama National College of Technology)

         AKIGUCHI Shunsuke(Toyama National College of Technology)

   Leading-edge technological development has helped improve and advance society all around the world. However, the opportunities and benefits of these technologies rarely extend to those who live with physical and mental disabilities. One of the reasons is that the disabled represent a small minority of the population, subsequently demand is low. However, we think that technology should be employed to help and assist those in the minority, especially those with disabilities, so that they can live better and fuller lives. For the purpose of nurturing engineers with similar points of view, we designed a Problem Based Learning [PBL] project centered around developing a communication support iPod application for disabled children. Our female students visited a special support school for mentally disabled children on several occasions, and through these visits, interviews and a teachers' survey, they started work on an application. While developing this communication tool, they had to constantly customize the original concepts and functions to match with the user’s needs and/or conditions. And by focusing on these user-based needs, the project gave the students much valuable real-life engineering experience for their future careers. The focus of this PBL was not centered on improving programming ability, but rather to develop team-working skills such as sharing information, and listening and expressing points of view. It is important for engineers to work as a team, and through this project our students learned how to collaborate while helping improve the conditions for children with disabilities.

P-5

Title:  Career Education for Women students at Toyama National College of Technology

Author(s): TAKAMATSU Saori, SHINKAI Junko, TSUMORI Nobuko, TERASAKI Yukiko, OHASHI Chisato, UESAKA Setsu and KOMAMIYA Yuu (Toyama National College of Technology)

We have come up to organize a “KOSEN Brand Project” to be carried out intensively during a two school-year period to transmit recognition of Toyama National College of Technology (TNCT).

The activity is to create a network of alumnae, researchers and engineers and trace role model alumnae, and collect information on enterprises where women can work on an equal basis with men. In addition, they will be signed up as mentors in the career support center to be established. Lecture meetings and consultation shall be held by those who are active in society.

Unazuki Hot Spring area is famous for its power-source development by water-power-electricity-generation. A project has been attempting to revitalize the area from a low-carbon path approach by introducing EVs and small hydro-electric power generation. Our students are in collaboration with this project which shall eventually ripen into success as part of their career education. For technology to root in society, construction of a new social system is important in the region. The objectives are to enhance the ability of female students as a competent individual by On-The-Job-training. Groups comprising mainly female students go through PBL, learning to discover the issue in problem, plan, execute, cooperate and to negotiate in the project team in revitalizing the region developing perspectives from keywords such as “innovation”, “globalization”, “sustainability” and “diversity” which are thought to be indispensable as future engineers.

P-6

Title Presentaion of Practical Research with students on FAR EAST SPRING in Komsomolsk-na-Amure ( Russia )

Author : FUKUCHI Kenji ( Ube National College of Technology )

FAR EAST SPRING is the international practical conference in Komsomolsk-na-Amure every year from 2001. Komsomolsk-na-Amure city is very important for Russia politically and it is also a center of modern industry in Khabarovsk region. The main objective of the conference is to make the population percept the processes occurring in society adequately, take into account the dangers of the modern world and choose optimal methods and means of protecting life and health. The chair person is professor Stepanova for department of safety of vital activity in Komsomolsk-na-Amure state technical university(KnASTU). Ube national college of technology had the agreement with KnASTU in 2008. Because Ube and Komsomolsk-na-Amure are same member city of the union of machinery industrial cities in north-east asia. At that time, Prof. Stepanova invited me for the next FAR EAST SPRING-2009.  I and my advanced course students presented the three titles on FAR EAST SPRING-2009(May, 22) in Komsomolsk-na-Amure. They are “Prediction of adsorbed equilibria for multi-solute dilute aqueous solutions on activated carbon using non-ideal adsorbed solution model and extended Radke-Prausnitz equation”(water purification), “ Development of artificial eelgrass soil appropriated to creation of eelgrass bed”(ecological technology), and “Treatment property of food rejection using dissolution apparatus of ozone with liquid thin film”(waste treatment).

P-7

Dynamic analysis for the development and dissipation of yellow sand in Korea

Chun-Sang Hong (Kanazawa University)

Dong-Hee Kang (Pukyong National University)

Kil-Jong Seo (Pukyong National University)

Dong-In Lee (Pukyong National University)

Yasunobu Iwasaka (Kanazawa University)

In this study, change of an air current with concentration of PM10 around the western coast of Korean peninsula, and the transportation of yellow-sand associated to synoptical weather condition were analyzed. Based on these analysis, influence of yellow-sand and its regional distribution were investigated. Yellow sand of the Korean peninsula as a quantitative concentration of inflows, and the yellow sand of the weather during the development and destruction to ensure that from 2008 until 2009 for a period of four weather observation site data analysis were used. Synopsis of the Korean peninsula state of NCEP/NCAR analysis were used, the movement of yellow sand on the path of NOAA HYSPLIT4 model was used. Synoptically, South Korea was influenced by a trough since the edge of low pressure and forward area of high pressure were located over South Korea with relatively strong westerly winds. We concluded that there are some relation to the enhancement and dissipation of the yellow sand; 1) regional difference in the wind direction and speed, 2) vertical updraft and downdraft at 800 hPa, and 3) variation of horizontal divergence.

P-8

Title:  Proposal of The Presumption Method of Water Use Load and the Ideal Way of Low Load resulting from Washing Recyclable Waste

- Questionnaire such as Washing Recyclable Waste in house -

Author(s): SHIMADA Tetsuya (Ishikawa National College of Technology)

            ISHIWATARI Hiroshi (Ishikawa National College of Technology)

 Since the Containers and Packaging Recycling Law was in force in 1997, sorted collection of containers and packaging is going on, and we are supposed to wash recyclable waste under the local council’s guidance. The important point is that as a result, water use load, energy consumption have correspondingly increased in spite of focus on environmental concerns, and that it is unexpected circumstances.

This study is intended to propose the presumption method of new water use load, waste water load and energy consumption, and to make a study on the ideal way of low load resulting from washing recyclable waste.

First, we have taken a questionnaire survey of resident’s environment-conscious, how to wash recyclable waste and others in order to see the picture of it. We have selected Kanazawa as research zone ( 236 residents). The chief reason is that recyclable waste in Kanazawa is sorted by into many subjects.

In this paper, we are concerned with the questionnaire survey result. In conclusion, (1) there is a difference between environment-conscious and real action in life; (2) comprehensible results play a successful role on environment-action; (3) there is some audiences who are aware of an absurdity on washing recyclable waste; and others.

P-9

Title:  Simple determination of fruoride compounds in the gypsum using ion exchange resin dissolution

Author(s): SAWAI Hikaru (Toyama National College of Technology)

MANAKA Atsushi (Toyama National College of Technology)

TAFU Masamoto (Toyama National College of Technology)

                   CHOHJI Tetsuji (Toyama National College of Technology)

The Gypsum is composed calcium sulfate dihydrate which is salt of poor solubility. It was used to for many buildings as wall materials. However, large amount of them have been abandoned with dismantling of buildings as “waste gypsum board”

Waste gypsum boards are used for fixation agent for construction sludge as the recycled products. However, impurities of the gypsum such as fluorine become terrible issue as source of ground pollution when using gypsum for some recycled products such as it.

Therefore, analysis of fluorine compounds and coming out with apposite provision on the generation and distributions level of waste gypsum board are needed for smooth operation of recycling of waste gypsum board.

Thus, pretreatment which is used ion exchange resins is examined for development of simple analysis of fluorine compounds in gypsum.

In this method, historical pretreatment which has dangerous process and long operation time becomes to simpler one with using ion exchange resins.

Using present pretreatment and some existing analytical method for fluoride ion (Absorptiometry with Lanthanum-Alizarin Complexone, Ion Selective Electrode method, Digitalpacktest Method) can appraise for fluorine compounds in the gypsum.

Good results were obtained on the spiked recovery test which is using active sample. Thus, present method is going to be hoped for using on On-site.

P-10

Lifetime prediction of lead acid storage batteries by electrochemical impedance analysis

ASAI Yuki (Toyama National College of Technology)

MIZUMOTO Iwao (Toyama National College of Technology)

In preceding study, a resistance value of lead acid storage batteries was increased by repeat charge and discharge. It is difficult to judge degree of deterioration by the resistance value.

The experiment of the lifetime prediction of lead acid storage batteries was decided by the electrochemical impedance analysis. Because complex plane plot and Bode plot are applied to the lifetime prediction, the degree of deterioration is revealed by one time measurement. Measured impedance spectrum describes semicircular locus on complex plane. As increase of charge and discharge cycles, the radius of the semicircle grows big, and semicircle shifts toward imaginary axis. The equivalent circuit model was represented by trajectory geometry of complex plane. The equivalent circuit model is constructed with series parallel combination of two resistors and a capacitor. A simulation was carried out fitting a curve based on measured result, and a value of the each element was calculated.  The each element closes to default value at the condition of high discharged capacity.  Resistance is expected to increase, and by contrast, capacitance is expected to decrease at the condition of high discharged capacity in deteriorated battery.

The degree of deterioration was allowed to predict from trajectory geometry of complex plane.

P-11

Title:  Erosion Problem in Wooden Wastes Recycling Plants

Author(s): MURAI Kousei (Kanazawa Technical College)

           TENNICHI Michio (Kanazawa Technical College )

           NISHINO Yoshinori (Hokko Kakouki Co.,Ltd)

As our society changes from the type of mass consumption to that of recycling, the law for the promotion of effective utilization of resources was prepared early in 2000. With this, in 2002, put into force was the Law for the Promotion of Utilization of Recyclable Construction Resources. Under this law, wooden wastes recycling plants are in operation.

In large-sized recycling plants ( with the processing capacity of 360 ton/day ) where  disassembled wooden wastes are chipped by crusher and reproduced into compress – formed board through their drying process, it is a tangible serious problem on-site that  exhausted gas emitted from them causes erosion at impellers of the fan, duct and cyclone separator.

In this report, we show the relation between operating conditions and erosion, which has been made clear by observing eroded impellers of the fan. To be concrete, velocity of airstream has a great influence on the development of erosion; the value of 30 m/s is one dividing point and has been proved to be a value of great importance.

Regarding the difference of quality of materials, we have examined how the each one is affected by erosion, including the validity of data accumulated from erosion experiments at the laboratory. Herein, we make a report on the results of them as well.

P-12

Title: An Evaluation of Solidification Technologies for Recycle of Dredged Sediment in Stagnant Water Area

Author(s):

Sang-hyun Kim (Environmental Application Science, KyungHee University)

Jae-hoon Jung (Environmental Application Science, KyungHee University)

Tae-woong Ahn (Environmental Application Science, KyungHee University)

I-song Choi (Environmental Science and Environmental Research Center, KyungHee University)Jong-min Oh (Environmental Science and Engineering , KyungHee University)

Recently, sediment in stagnant area has been increasingly acknowledged as a carrier and an available contamination in water system. For this reason, dredging is annually conducted to remediate water quality and secure storage capacity. However, numerous amount of dredged sediment to disposal is remained as a secondary problem. Currently, in Korea, dredged sediment is partially disposed as a reclamation waste or reused into sandy soil. However, they are still in trouble because of spatial and environmental problem. Therefore, rather than these simple recycle methods, it is necessary to develop on other various application areas, as well as, important to manage main cause of inner pollution. In this study, we studied on recycle method for dredged sediment using solidification and stabilization(S&S). The purpose of S&S is to reduce the mobility of the contaminants such as heavy metal and to rapidly decrease initial water-content percentage to improve its flexibility and mobility by addition of an agent. And we analyzed compressive strength of solidified mixtures between sediment and agent to evaluate its recycle possibility as a structural material. Conventional agents include lime, fly ash, cement and/or other chemicals. But we added a recycled waste material from paper mill to improve solidification ability and to reduce the cost of agent.

P-13

Title:  Preparation of calcium phosphate with corbicula shells

Author(s): ONODA Hiroaki (Kyoto Prefectural University)

          NAKANISHI Hironari (Kyoto Prefectural University)

           TAKENAKA Atsushi (Yonago National College of Technology)

   Recently, the interest about the recycling of waste is increasing. From this viewpoint, sea shells are tried to use as a raw material for various applications. Generally, edible parts of shellfish are small, therefore large amount of waste was produced from the shellfish. Because sea shells are easy to gather, they are suitable to use as raw material. At the present time, sea shells that have light and little pigment, for example scallop, have been used as calcium resource. However, it is difficult to use sea shells that have dark and much pigment. Corbicula is a common food in Japan. Its shell is about 3 cm in size and black color. In this work, we tried to use this corbicula japonica shell as a calcium resource to prepare calcium phosphate. The concentration of phosphoric acid and pH value were varied to clarify the formation mechanism of calcium phosphate. The chemical composition and powder properties of precipitates were investigated. The obtained phosphate materials were also discussed on the comparison with calcium phosphate prepared from phosphoric acid and commercial calcium nitrate. Furthermore, as an application, the adsorption ratio of basic stinking gas was measured, because phosphate materials are used as solid state acid compounds.

P-14

Title:  Applicability of the fiber-reinforced cement-treatment technique for recycling of surplus soils

Authors:     URAYAMA Shouhei (Kagawa National College of Technology),

KOTAKE Nozomu (Kagawa National College of Technology)

The fiber-reinforced cement treated clay was developed as a geomaterial for barrier system of coastal landfill sites that improves toughness of brittle cement treated clay by inclusion of fibrous materials while keeping sufficient impermeability in large strain states. From the previous studies it was derived that the bonding and friction forces between the fiber and the surrounding cement treated clay mostly contribute to improve the toughness of cement treated clay. In the present study the effects of grain size distribution on the toughness of fiber-reinforced cement treated soil was examined for the purpose to evaluate the applicability of various types of soils without limiting to clay that can lead to more extensive recycling of surplus soils generated at the site and other usages. Then, a series of compression and bending tests were conducted on four types of soils that were selected to have different grain size distributions. From the test results similar improvement effects were observed in the cases of soils with considerable sand contents as was seen in the marine highly plastic clay conducted in the previous study. Particularly the bending strength was improved more significantly in the cases of soils having larger sand contents. Thus, the results of the present study may suggest the applicability of the soil improvement technique for effective recycling of surplus soils.

P-15

Title:The adsorption of lead ions on manganese oxide particles immobilized with alginate beads in an aqueous environment

Authors:

KITAYAMA Kazuyuki (Nagaoka University of Technology)

TEOH Wahtzu (Nagaoka University of Technology)

SATO Kazunori (Nagaoka University of Technology)

We have attempted the synthesis of a composite material consisting of fine γ-manganese oxyhydroxide (g-MnOOH) particles and an alginate bead. The adsorptive ability of this composite material for Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions has been studied. The g-MnOOH particles prepared by the precipitation method showed a needle-like morphology approximately 5-10 mm long and 300-500 nm wide, whose specific area was 91 m2/g. The distilled water suspended with fine g-MnOOH particles dissolved Na-alginate, which was added with the dropping of a 0.5 M CaCl2 solution in order to polymerize by cross-linking with multi-charge metal ions. After stirring the solution for 3 h and subsequently being kept for 24 h a bead precursor gel was formed, and drying this gel resulted in the formation of black alginate beads 1.0-1.5 mm diameter uniformly dispersed with the fine g-MnOOH particles. The molar ratios of the g-MnOOH to alginate were 4:1, 2:1, and 1:1. It was found that γ-MnOOH showed the highest adsorption ability for Pb(II) ions more than other among the manganese oxides we have investigated. The g-MnOOH particles immobilized with alginate beads showed a good adsorption performance for Pb(II) ions in an aqueous environment. Since alginate is a type of biopolymer, which is mainly extracted from brown seaweeds with great availability, its safety and the environmentally benign property are useful as an adsorbent which can remove Pb(II) ions dissolved in water at low concentrations.

P-16

Title:  Removal of lead ions from an aqueous solution by photoelectrodeposition using ceria-based oxides

Author(s): MUNEMURA Shinichi (Nagaoka University of Technology)

     TEOH Wahtzu (Nagaoka University of Technology)

     NISHIYAMA Hiroshi (Nagaoka University of Technology)

     SAITO Nobuo (Nagaoka University of Technology)

     INOUE Yasunobu (Nagaoka University of Technology)

     SATO Kazunori (Nagaoka University of Technology)

Precipitation, adsorption, and ion exchange techniques are common methods for the removal of hazardous heavy metal ions from aqueous environment. We therefore have focused on an application of photocatalysts to the removal of Pb(II) ions by photoelectrodeposition. In this study, we evaluated the Pb(II)-ion removal ability of ceria-based oxides doped with various rare-earth oxides. Ceria-based oxides were synthesized at temperatures above 1000 in an electric furnace by the solid state reaction method The prepared powder samples were respectively suspended in a 1.0 mM solution containing Pb(II) ions. The solution of Pb(II) ions was prepared by dissolving Pb(NO3)2 in distilled and deionized water. A quartz cell filled with the solution was externally irradiated with a 200 W Hg-Xe lamp. Concentrations of residual Pb(II) ions after the experiment was measured by ICP-AES. The photo-irradiation significantly increased the amount of removed Pb(II) ions from the solution. The color of these photo-irradiated powders changed from yellow white to red brown, which indicates a deposition of lead oxides. This result suggests an occurrence of the oxidation reaction between the holes generated by the photo-irradiation and the adsorbed Pb(II) ions on the surface of the photocatlayst oxides. Doping effects of various rare-earth oxides on the efficiency of photoelectrodeposition of Pb(II) ions are being investigated.    

P-17

Title: Study on Air-lift Pump used with Collapsible Tube

Authors: KOSHIBA Takuya (Maizuru National Collage of Technology )

        NISHIYAMA Hitoshi (Maizuru National Collage of Technology )

In the closed waters with a few comings and goings of the water of an inland sea and lakes and mashes, the sludge accumulates on the bottom by the inflow of the contamination material by domestic waste water and the factory wastes and gives bad influence for the environment. Then, it is necessary for the environment that the development of simple technique to recover the sludge. As fundamental researches to develop an air-lift pump device for effective sludge recovery in response to these problems, we clarify the dynamic behavior of the solid-phase (imitation sludge) in multiphase flows in the riser pipe of the air-lift pump by using the image analysis, and connect the new suggestion and the improvements such as an air-supply method or the change of materials of the riser pipe.

In the experiment, the air flow-rate and the wall thickness of the collapsible tube were changed. Lifting Solid was measured quantify of during the few times. In addition, we photographed the flow field by using a high speed video camera. And, the images were processed with the image analysis software with a computer.

The summary of the results are: as for the lift up performance of sludge, the case of collapsible tube is superior to that of rigid pipe. In the region of low flow-rate of air, as for the performance, the tube of thin thickness is higher. The solid particulates as mock sludge repeat acceleration and deceleration, and move the spiral.

P-18

Title:  Treatment of fluoride in wastewater by using nano-activated calcium phosphate

Author(s): CHUJO Yukina, TAFU Masamoto, CHOHJI Tetsuji

(Toyama National College of Technology)

MORIOKA Ichiro, NAKANO Hirokazu, FUJITA Takumi (Chiyoda Ute Co., Ltd.)

Calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, CaHPO42H2O) reacts with fluoride in the aqueous solution and transforms to stable fluoroapatite (FAp, Ca10(PO4)6F2) This reaction has appeared in the prevention of dental caries by using acidic solution containing high concentration of fluoride. We have applied to the reaction to immobilize of small amount of fluoride in the environment. We have appeared that DCPD is applicable to immobilize fluoride in water, polluted soil and waste gypsum.

The aim of this study was to develop a treatment method of removing fluoride from wastewater. DCPD does not react with fluoride directly, but consisted of two processes. When DCPD is mixed aqueous solution containing fluoride, nano-scale particle forms on the surface of the DCPD particle. After formation of the nano-scale particle, fluoride ion in the aqueous solution reacts with DCPD and forms FAp. Because the induction of nano-scale surface on surface of DCPD particles needs to long time (2 - 4 hours), DCPD is difficult to apply to treatment of fluoride in wastewaters.

In previous studies, we appeared that the nano-surface structure is easily induced by mixing DCPD with water. The “nano activated DCPD” reacted with fluoride in the aqueous solution in short time. In this study we investigated removal of fluoride in wastewater by using the nano activated DCPD comparison with conventional treatment method using aluminum salt. We studied removal amount of fluoride, amount and properties produced sludge, and cost. As a result, the treatment by using DCPD was need less amount of chemicals. Amount of sludge generated from treatment was one third of the conventional method. The obtained sludge was easily to separate from treated water by simply filtration method. We evaluated economic efficiency of the waste water treatment. It was appeared that cost of the DCPD method was half of the conventional method.

P-19

Development of High visibility visual determination for chelating agent concentration

Authors:     MIYAMOTO Yoshiaki (Toyama National College of Technology)

          KARASHIMADA Ryunosuke (Toyama National College of Technology)

          Manaka Atsushi (Toyama National College of Technology)

           IGARASHI Shukuro (Ibaraki University)

In recent years, development of monitoring technique for chelating agents concentration in products is demanded to keep stable property of products.  Common analytical method for chelating agents is ion chromatography or titration.  However, these methods have problems such as economy, rapidity, and portability. Therefore, the simple analysis of chelating agent in the products has been necessary.

In this study, the development of high visibility visual determination for ethyrendiamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) which is one of the popular chelating agent was examined.  The principal of the proposed method is Eye-microplate method (Eye-Mip method) which could be measured the concentration by the counting the discoloring number on the microplate.  Therefore, the EDTA concentration is determined by the count of the discoloring number on the microplate using the proposed method.

As a results, the quantitative result could be confirmed because the number of the discoloring of well changed in proportion to the sample concentration.

The application of the presented method is expected in each field to On-Site Analysis because the presented method is an excellent technique in operativeness, the portability, and the economy.

P-20

Title:  Analysis of outer membrane protein in marine phytoplankton under the iron-limited condition

Author(s): SATOU Yuri (Graduate School of Natural Science & Technology, Kanazawa University)

           QISTIN Shaari (Faculty of Engineerring, Kanazawa University)

        RAHMAN Md. Mamunur (Graduate School of Natural Science & Technology, Kanazawa University)

         MAKI Teruya(Institute of Science and Engineerring, Kanazawa University)

         HASEGAWA Hiroshi(Institute of Science and Engineerring, Kanazawa University)

Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for the phytoplankton. Iron deficiency is one of the major reasons that limit phytoplankton growth. It is believed that under the unsatisfactory state of Fe supply, microbes produce some outer membrane protein to promote Fe-uptake. There are two proposed mechanisms to explain the Fe uptake by the phytoplankton: a) Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II) and captured in the cell membrane; b) siderophore, a natural chelating ligand, is produced outside the cell to form Fe-ligand complex which is absorbed by the cell. When the siderophore-Fe complex is adsorbed in a cell, the microbes express an uncharacteristic cell surface receptor in the cell membrane. It is thought that under the iron-limited conditions, phytoplankton promote iron uptake by activating the membrane receptor and the production of siderophore. The membrane receptor and siderophore can be used in the study of immobilization of the carbon dioxide (CO2) to the ocean and the control of the red tide phytoplankton etc as a new biomarker.

In this study, we cultured red tide phytoplankton Prymnesium parvum, and analyzed the outer membrane protein that produced under iron-limited conditions. Protein was detected with sensitive fluorescence derivatization / high performance liquid chromatography (FD/HPLC) and compared with the conventional HPLC method. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used for protein separation analysis. The outer membrane protein was identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

P-21

Title: Research on Phosphorus Fractions at Hwaseong Lake in Korea 

Author(s):  Tae-Hoon Kim (Environmental Application Science, Kyung Hee University)

Tae-Woong Ahn (Environmental Application Science, Kyung Hee University)

Jae-Hoon Jung(Environmental Application Science, Kyung Hee University)

I-Song Choi(Environmental Science and Environmental Research Center)

Jong-Min Oh(Environmental Science and Engineering , Kyung Hee University)

Generally, phosphorus from sediment is released by oxygen condition, water temperature, flow velocity, etc, and the released fraction is various according to environmental status. How much phosphorus is released by and which mechanism of is determined by chemicophysical properties of water and phosphorus fraction in the sediments. Thus, in this research we evaluated phosphorus dynamic in water as a causing and important substance for eutrophication in the fresh lake.

This Research was conducted at Hwaseong lake in Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea, and 3 sampling spots representing Hwaseong lake were selected. Sediments were collected by grab sampler and fractionized according to 5 different fractions of inorganic phosphorus, which are soluble P, Al-P, Fe-P, reductant soluble-P, Ca-P, based on the Methods for P Analysis, G. M. Pierzynski(2009, G,m Pierzynski). We intend to evaluate water pollution possibility from phosphorous-release with analyzing fractions of inorganic phosphorous in the sediments of the Hwaseong lake by conducting classification of sediments into different fractions. Inorganic phosphorus fraction ratio in three sampling spots presented similar result as Fe-P > Al-P > Loosely and soluble-P > Reductant Soluble-P > Ca-P. In case of Al-P and Fe-P, which are the highest percentage of total phosphorus, They are highly interesting in the advantages which can be easily affected and actively released due to sensitive reaction from high pH, and easily uptake into plants in a short period compared with other fractions of phosphorus in the reservoir water-dynamic. Mainly, these fractions are caused by inflow from urban swage and industrial waste.

In this research, release possibility is relatively low because all area in Hwaseong lake are under neuter pH

P-22

Title: Study on Development of Bio Concrete Block to Improve Water Quality Using Admixing Agent

Author(s):  Feng-Qi Li (Environmental Application Science, Kyung Hee University)

Tae-Woong Ahn (Environmental Application Science, Kyung Hee University)

Jae-Hoon Jung(Environmental Application Science, Kyung Hee University)

I-Song Choi(Environmental Science and Environmental Research Center)

Jong-Min Oh(Environmental Science and Engineering, Kyung Hee University)

Recently, research on the development of concrete as environmental-friendly material from the conventional single usage for structural material is conducted actively. Since almost sort of concrete for structural material is impermeable, temporary concentrated rainfall is led into urban stream and occurs huge-scale overflow. In addition, it has become primary cause of environmental destruction with short of ground-water being a possible source of urban desertification, as well as negative effect on the ecosystem. Therefore, various study on porous-concrete, which is improved in water-air permeability and absorbtion by formating artificial continuous pore, has been in progress.

In this study, we developed an environmental friendly Bio-concrete-block with possible use for direct water purifying mechanism by combination between Bio-admixture, which adsorbs and decomposes various hazard pollutants by operation of metabolism, and porous concrete, which supplies fundamental habitat for plants and microorganisms through inner artificial continuous pore of concrete complex. And we considered various applications as structural materials (for water-bed, water bank, water-permeate block) after evaluating its remediation ability of stream water quality. We evaluated the media characteristic of bio-concrete and conducted experiment for various conditions classified by media, concentration, detention-time, and we drew water-purification effect and optimum properties of Bio-concrete by long-term operation as the final purpose.

P-23

Title: Investigation of the main stream in Hwang-gu river by field monitoring.

Young-ho Seo (Environmental Science and Engineering, KyungHee University)

Jae-hoon Jung (Environmental Application Science, KyungHee University)

Tae-woong Ahn (Environmental Application Science, KyungHee University)

I-song Choi (Environmental Science and Environmental Research Center, KyungHee University)

Jong-min Oh (Environmental Science and Engineering , KyungHee University)

The upper class of Hwang-gu stream is mostly concentrated with pollution sources and it is a form of typical urban across stream. As well as, this area has been continuously developed as residential land with high population growth rate, and estimated that various industrial complex, which has large, midium, small scale of workplace located in mid-upper class in Won-chun stream, produce numerous level of contaminants. Therefore, overall management of water quality for each drainage regions to evaluate its detailed state and investigation of total pollutants loading state in Hwang-gu stream basin is necessary. Therefore, Eco-restoration projects (eco-park, natural river creating) have been conducted and various method was applied on the river for water remediation.

In this study, sampling points of main stream are total 7 point H1: after joined with Seoho stream, H2: Darhwangkyobo, H3: after discharged from sewage treatment plant, H4: Beginning of alluvial island, H5: Su-jik bridge downstream rapids, H6: after joined with Sammi stream, H7: before joined with Jinwi stream. The experimental items were divided into two classes. One is immediate experiment (temperature, pH, EC, DO). The other is laboratory experiment (SS, BOD, COD, T-N, T-P, Cl-, PO4-P). A detailed investigation has been conducted through analyzed data and efficiency of water remediation on artificial wetland is studied by analysing inflow and outflow of wetland in the field monitoring,

 

P-24

Title:  Evaluation of Comprehensive Water Quality of Sakata Lagoon in Niigata Prefecture, Japan and Improvement for Environmental Protection

Author(s): LI Chong (Niigata University)

           TANABE Kunihiro (Niigata University)

           HARA Takayuki (Niigata University)

          ARAYA Akemi (Niigata University)

KANO Naoki (Niigata University)

          IMAIZUMI Hiroshi (Niigata University)

WATANABE Naoki (Niigata University)

XU Gongdi (Donghua University, Qiqihar University)

Contamination of pollutants in aquatic environment is one of the most debatable problems in the world. Sakata Lagoon, registered with the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands in March 1996, is the representative dunned lake in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. From the viewpoint of preserving natural diversity or natural resources, it is important to study the comprehensive water quality and the leading causes of water pollution, and to survey the minimization and recovery of harmful pollutants in natural environment.

In this study, the main subject is focused on the determination of organic and entropic parameters and δ18O in waters in Sakata Lagoon, and investigation on the appropriate protection measures. For the sample preparation procedure of δ18O, CO2-H2O isotope equilibration method was used. The concentration of DOC was measured by TOC Meter (SHIMAZU, 5050A). Nutrients (i.e., NO2-, PO43-, total nitrogen (T-N), and total phosphorus (T-P)) were determined by absorption spectrometry (HITACH, Z5000). Lagoon water samples were taken regularly since 2004 at the fixed 3 sampling points (S1: downstream point of Lower Lagoon (Shitakata), S2: conflux point of Lower Lagoon (Shitakata) and Upper Lagoon (Uwakata), S3: spring water at shore of south area in Lower Lagoon (Shitakata).

From the measuring results, it was revealed that there was a lighter water pollution problem in Sakata Lagoon. The concentration of DOC was large in S1, and highly concentration of nutrients was found in S2. Furthermore, δ18O value was large in S1 throughout the year. This phenomenon could be closely related to the biological process such as the activity of Crustacea plankton and the recharge from surrounding groundwater as well as the effect of evaporation. Some appropriate protection measures in view of ecology, engineering and economics have been provided in this work.

P-25

Title: The pollution treatment efficiency analysis of non-point source reduction facility

Author(s): Kwang-hyeon CHANG (Environmental Application Science, Kyung Hee University)

Sang-eun LEE (Environmental Application Science, Kyung Hee University)

I-Song Choi(Environmental Science and Environmental Research Center)

Jong-Min Oh(Environmental Science and Engineering, Kyung Hee University)

In order to reduce total pollution loading, Yong-in City that is the study area introduced the total maximum daily load management system. Till the effectiveness period of the first total maximum daily load management system is 2012 years from 2004 years, and main contents to manage is BOD. Yong-in City in Gyeonggi-do enforced total maximum daily load management plan since 2007. In the case of the Gyeong-An stream, Goal of water quality is 4.1ppm. In order to treat point source, Yong-In City is planning to establish the reduction plan, 2,645 kg/day from new establishment of 4 Sewage Treatment Plant and 4 sewage treatment facilities, 607.8 kg/day from sewer rehabilitation, 224.7 kg/day from Water Quality consolidation of Effluent. And 15 treatment facilities are set up and run about the non-point source. However, it is difficult to investigate the ability of treatment facilities for nonpoint sources in order to evalulate whether it can satisfy for the cutback plans, because of the lack of inquiry of treatment ability. So, the purpose of this study is to suggest the fundamental strategies of water improvement for non-point sources by conducting a performance test on treatment facilities of non-point sources. Two types of inquiry spot, vegetation type and apparatus type, were analyzed. The samples were measured total five times, when it rained. In addition, the samples were measured until the spill didn’t take place more from the facilities as stopping the precipitation. In the experimental result, the vegetation type showed stable efficiency of treatment than apparatus type. And there were wide variations according to the level of maintenance. Therefore, it needs to determine the facilities as evaluating options regarding the quality of treated water, the facilities area, the basin area and so on. Also, the facilities are necessary to maintain regularly after construction of facilities.

P-27

Title: Study on Degree of Pollution and Release Rate of Sediment in Gul-po Stream

Jong-min Oh (Environmental Science and Engineering , KyungHee University)

Jae-hoon Jung
(Environmental Application Science, KyungHee University)

Tae-woong Ahn (Environmental Application Science, KyungHee University)

I-song Choi (Environmental Science and Environmental Research Center, KyungHee University)

The Gul-po stream, flowing through In-cheon, Bu-cheon, Seoul, and Kim-po which are objects of study, is going worse of water quality due to constructive problems of the stream as well as inflow pollutions from living-sewages and factory-sewages, slow flow rate and constructions for stream. Besides, a dry stream phenomenon caused by lacking of maintenance water for up-stream make self-purification system worse, and water quality of Gul-po stream is now staying at the bottom of level at the moment. Especially, for the stream bed, the accumulated sludge is mostly formed by the deposition of the particle pollutant due to slow flow rate and artificially straightened stream channel. This accumulated sludge adsorbs the great quantity of organic material and heavy metal, and etc. because of containing the internal contamination possibility by a re-gushing, even after the pollution source is removed, it can cause the following water pollution (Alloway et al, 1988). Without total examination as recommended previous, it is considered difficult to accomplish practical efficiency. Therefore, in this research, the pollution level of the stream bed sediment is analyzed over the watercourse full section. And the investigation about the nutritious material release characteristic of the sediment in Gul-po Stream through indoor test is performed. The object of this research, evaluates the influence of contamination of a watercourse by the sediment through this experiment.

P-28

Title:  Effect of biodegradable chelating ligands on iron bioavailability of hydroponically grown rice seeding (Oryza sativa. L).

Authors: KADOHASHI Kouta (Graduate School of Natural Science&Technology, Kanazawa University)

       RAHMAN Md. Azizur (Graduate School of Natural Science&Technology, Kanazawa University)

        TAKASUGI Yui (Graduate School of Natural Science&Technology, Kanazawa University)

TATE Yousuke (Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kanazawa University)

MAKI Teruya (Graduate School of Natural Science&Technology, Kanazawa University)

HASEGAWA Hiroshi (Graduate School of Natural Science&Technology, Kanazawa University)

Rice is one of the most important crops in developing countries and it is a main food stuff for about 35 of the whole world population. Approximately, 128 million hectares of the irrigated and rainfed lands of the world are under rice cultivation and due to either nutrient deficiency or toxicity yield production has been reduced in about 100 million hectares of these lands.

Iron is an essential micronutrient for plants, which plays important roles in respiration, photosynthesis, and many other cellular functions such as DNA synthesis, nitrogen fixation, and hormone production. Although abundant in nature it forms insoluble ferric hydroxide complexes at neutral or alkaline pH in oxic condition. Chelating ligands produce soluble “Fe-ligand complex” which assist Fe uptake in plants. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been very popular to achieve this purpose and to improve iron bioavailability, but it is quite persistent in the environment because of its low biodegradability. This, in combination with its high affinity for metal complexation, results in a prevent geochemical cycle. Biodegradable chelating ligands, such as hydroxyiminodisuccinic acid (HIDS) would be good choice and alternative to less biodegradable EDTA. It traps and inactivates various kinds of metals ions over a wide rage of pH, particularly Fe3+ and Cu2+, as well as Ca2+ and Mg2+; shows high stability in harsh conditions and high temperature; is highly soluble in aqueous alkaline solution. Because of degration and high stability constant with Fe3+ of HIDS, we become interested to investigate the effectiveness of chelating ligand for increase of Fe bioavailability.

In this study, we developed time-dependent change of chelate ligands and soluble iron concentratrion in culture medium by hydroponically grown rice seeding (Oryza sativa. L), The influence of biodegradable chelating ligands on iron uptake and growth was investigated.

P-30

Development of mutagenic assay based on hydrodynamic voltammetry in a droplet

Kazuto Sazawa, Hideki Kuramitz, Noriko Hata, Shigeru Taguchi

Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555, Japan.

E-mail: kuramitz@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp

The umu-test is one of the useful methods to evaluate mutagenicity of chemical components which causes the changes of β-galactosidase activity of S.typhimurium. However, a regulatory umu-test is not suitable to evaluate a sample which contain colored dissolved organic matter, sediment, and high-concentration suspended solid (SS) because the assay is based on spectroscopic detection.

In this study, a new umu-test was developed based on hydrodynamic electrochemical detection using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). The advantage of electrochemical detection is that it hardly interferes with colored components and SS in sample solution unlike spectroscopic detection. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic voltammetry in a droplet (ca. 40 μL) can achieve effective mixing of sample solution and convective mass transport of analyte to the electrode surface which results in a rapid detection and signal enhancement for enzymatic reaction to evaluate mutagenicity. The mutagenicity of tested compounds, Furylfuramide (AF-2), 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), 1,8-Dinitopyrene (1,8-DNP), and 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP), are successively evaluated by the proposed method in this study. The detection time for enzymatic reaction is reduced to only 1 min as compared to the regulatory assay which requires 30 to 60 min. Moreover, addition of the humic acid and formulated sediment (Moss peat 4%, Kaolin 20%, Quartz Sand 76%) to the sample solution does not give positive error unlike in the case of regulatory assay which is a serious concern.

P-31

Quantitative research of runoff variation characteristics with distributed runoff model.

Authors:     NAKAGAWA Masahiro (Nagaoka University of Technology)

           MINJIAO Lu (Nagaoka University of Technology)

Precipitation over a catchment will be partly intercepted by forest, and finally return to the atmosphere as transpiration. The water reaching the ground surface will subject to infiltration, soil storage, and finally reach the river network within the catchment through the hillslopes and/or the ground surface and concentrate to the catchment outlet. Rainfall runoff model is a system to simulate these hydrologic processes. It is widely used in flood forecasting and important data of river planning.

There are two kinds of rainfall runoff models. Lumped model treats the catchment area as only one element. Therefore modelling and operational treatment are comparatively simple but distributed information can not treat directly in catchment.

Distributed model divides the catchment area into many uniform units. Therefore it can reflects in geographical information in catchment (ex. elevation, coefficient of roughness, flow pass length) and distributed input data(ex. rainfall volume, transpiration).The distributed model system has the potential to reproduce higher accuracy than the lumped model.

In rainfall runoff analysis using runoff models, catchment characteristics affect simulated hydrograph, however they are not clear quantitatively. One of the purposes of this study is make quantitative investigation. The result is considered to be helpful in quantitative rainfall runoff analysis.

P-32

Title:  Growth and annealing of InGaAsN quantum dot for sensitized solar cell

Author(s): URAKAMI Noriyuki (Toyohashi University of Technology)

           FUKAMI Futoshi (Toyohashi University of Technology)

           SEKIGUCHI Hiroto (Toyohashi University of Technology)

OKADA Hiroshi (Toyohashi University of Technology)

WAKAHARA Akihiro (Toyohashi University of Technology)

Self-assembled InGaAsN/GaP quan­tum dots (QDs) structure have been grown via a Stranski-Krastanow growth mode by plasma assisted solid-source molecular beam epitaxy and investigated annealing for high sensitized solar cell application. We have succeeded to grow multiple-stacked InGaAsN QDs with high QDs densities and no structure defects related large lattice mismatch have been detected by the transmission electron microscopy observation. From this structure, the photoluminescence (PL) has been observed even at room temperature. A rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is performed as a post-growth annealing. Integrated PL intensities are improved for all samples after RTA. Strongest integrated PL intensities have been available with performing RTA at 725°C. Then, the integrated PL inten­sity with RF power 390 W was obtained approximately 3.7 times higher compared to as-grown sample. A PL peak energies have blueshifted with increasing the RTA temperature up to 800°C. Blue shifts have been ~90 meV compared to as-grown. There is no difference of average QD height for the as-grown sample and after RTA sample performing at 725 °C. How­ever, the QD height is reduced from 5nm to 3nm after RTA at 800 °C. This result suggests that blue shifts are caused by the QD height reduction due to interdiffusion of group III atoms.

P-33

Title:  Preparation of 6.8%-conversion efficiency Cu(InGa)Se2 photovoltaic device with bandgap-tuned ZnOS buffer layer prepared by chemical bath deposition.

Author(s): Yuya Kusano(Toyohashi University of Technology)

Sasano Junji (Toyohashi University of Technology)

Masanobu Izaki(Toyohashi University of Technology)

Toshiyuki Yamaguchi(Wakayama National College of Technology)

Compound semiconductors of Cu(InGa)Se2(CIGS) and CuZnSnS2(CZTS) have attracted increasing attention as an absorbing layer in thin film solar cells, due to the high absorption coefficient at the order of 104 to 105 cm-1 greater than that for Si and bandgap energy.  The photovoltaic devices of CIGS and CZTS layers are fabricated by stacking several layers including n-type-ZnO semiconductor layer and CdS buffer layer, but the CdS is toxic and act as an obstacle for moving carrier generated by irradiating sun light, resulting in the suppression of the conversion efficiency.  It is indispensable to develop new buffer layer with ionization energy of 2.9-3.8eV, in order to enhance the conversion efficiency of the CIGS photovoltaic device from present maximum value of 20% to theoretical value of 28%.  ZnO semiconductor is a realistic candidate alternative to the CdS, because of the non-toxicity and ionization energy. 

In this paper, ZnOS layers with bandgap energy of 2.7-3.7eV have been prepared by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) process, which has been used for preparing the CdS layer, and the CIGS photovoltaic device with 6.8% in conversion efficiency has been constructed by using the bandgap-tuned ZnOS layer prepared under optimized condition as the buffer layer.  The structural characterization including microstructure and local structure around Zn atoms were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and XAFS measurement. 

P-34

Title:  Analysis of cellulase from earthworm and saccharification of biomass

Author(s): IKARASHI Yuki (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

            YARIMIZU Jun (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

          YOKOYAMA Daichi (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

          NAKAZAWA Hikaru (Nagaoka University of Technology)

          MORIKAWA Yasushi (Nagaoka University of Technology)

          OGASAWARA Wataru (Nagaoka University of Technology)

          AKAZAWA Shin-ichi (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

Two endoglucanases (LrEG1 and LrEG2) were isolated from the earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, by some column chromatographies.  The purified proteins LrEG1 and LrEG2 showed a single band on SDSPAGE with a molecular mass of 53.3 and 57.5 kDa, respectively.  The specific activity of LrEG1 and LrEG2 for carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were 113 and 58.6 U/mg, respectively, and these enzymes were active toward lichenan and b-glucan.  Thus, both enzymes had a b-1,4-endoglucanase activity.  Since LrEG1 was active toward 4-methylumbelliferyl b-D-glucopyranoside, it was indicated that the LrEG1 had a b-glucosidase activity.  The effect of temperature and pH on the endoglucanase activity with CMC as a substrate was studied.  The optimal temperature of LrEG1 and LrEG2 were 45°C and 40°C, respectively.  The optimal pH of LrEG1 and LrEG2 were 6.0 and 5.5, respectively.  These enzyme activities were stable over the pH range of 5.0 to 9.0 and over the temperature until 40°C (LrEG1) and 30°C (LrEG2), respectively.  The effect of reducing sugar production of red wheat bran on enzymatic saccharification using the cell-free extract of L. rubellus and Trichoderma reesei QM9414 was compared with various temperatures.  As a result, the saccharification activity of the cell-free extract of L. rubellus on 50°C was much higher than T. reesei QM9414.  It was thought that the amylase activity of L. rubellus was useful for saccharification of red wheat bran, because the starch component of its was relatively higher than another cellulosic biomass.  Thus, L. rubellus could be used as saccharification accelerator.

P-35

Temperature Control of Hot Spring Water by using Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

Hideaki YOSHIOKA*, Yoshikazu KAWAYOKE*, Nobuyoki KOMETANI* and Noboru MOMOSE**

*Ishikawa National College of Technology

**Toyama National College of Technology

    The temperature control of a hot water is an important subject connected with the environmental protection from industrial hot waste-water or the guarantee of special qualities of hot spring water. In the past, the temperature control of hot water has been attained by mixing it with cold water or by the simple heat exchanger. However, in these techniques, the available energy (so called exergy) in hot water is unused and wasting. In this study, we propose a new temperature control system by using the thermoelectric energy conversion, which is able to obtain both the electric power and the temperature suitable for a bath (or for an environment). First, the characteristics in Peltier modules: the temperature changes on the hot side and the cold side, changes in endothermic value and exothermic value, apparent thermal conductivity, and thermal efficiency, were investigated quantitatively in relation to the external resistance and on/off of the electric power which results from the temperature difference between both surfaces. Here on/off of the power generation can be a way of temperature control. Next, the heat transfer model of thermoelectric generating module is studied theoretically. Theoretical predictions for the thermal efficiency agree with experimental results. From these results, it is clarified that Peltier modules can be used like an intelligence wall for heat transfer. Finally, the new heat exchanger, which automatically controls the exit water temperature by generating electricity, is developed.

P-36

Title:  Hydrogen Gas Sensor using Multi-wall Carbon Nanotube-dispersed

polymethylmethacrylate thin film

Author(s): ASAKURA Masayuki (Fukui National College of Technology)

           KAWAMOTO Akira (Fukui National College of Technology)

           OKAMOTO Tomoichiro (Nagaoka University Technology)

          TAKATA Masasuke (Nagaoka University Technology)

Hydrogen is considered to be the energy source of next generation. It is well known that H2 is explosive with a wide range of concentration and low ignition energy. In order to handle the H2 gas safely, it is essential to develop an H2 gas sensor.  On the other hand, in order to control the speed of a hydrogen-fuel car or a hydrogen fuel cell car, it is necessary to develop a sensor for detection of the concentration of hydrogen gas. Many commercial hydrogen gas sensors are constructed using materials or devices which include rare metals such as palladium, platinum and so on. The fuel cell cars or the fuel cells for mobile equipments are expected to be used widely in the near future, and it seems that a big demand for the hydrogen sensors cause mass consumption of rare metals. Therefore, it is necessary to develop H2 gas sensors using non-rare metal.

In this work, the authors used multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) instead of rare metals for the fabrication of H2 sensors. The mixture of the poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), MWNT and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were dispersed by an ultrasonic wave. The PMMA thin films were prepared by solution casting method on glass substrates. Their surface electrical conduction was measured at room temperature. As a result, it was found that the current of multi-wall carbon nanotube-dispersed PMMA thin film increased with increasing hydrogen gas concentration, suggesting the possibility of the realization of the hydrogen gas sensor. Furthermore, the mechanism of the current increase was explained by heat radiation model based on the difference of thermal conductivity of atmospheric gas.

P-37

Title:  Research on effectiveness of snow air conditioning system for use in dormitory of Maizuru National College of Technology

Author(s): YOSHIMI Naohiro (Maizuru National College of Technology)

           KOBAYASHI Yohei (Maizuru National College of Technology)

This research investigates the feasibility of installing a snow air conditioning system in the dormitory of Maizuru National College of Technology. Even though Maizuru is located close to the Japan Sea, the temperature of this city increases from mid-July to the beginning of August, probably due to global warming. This period is taken place the open colleges in the end of this region and term examinations. The temperature in student dormitories also becomes relatively high, making it uncomfortable for the students to stay in the dormitories. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the temperature in the dormitories from the viewpoint of the health of students.

Using snow to reduce the dormitory’s temperature can prevent the discharge of CO2 by air conditioning. Snow systems are used to cool some facilities in Hokkaido and Tohoku which have long snowy winters. Maizuru used to be considered as a cold region. However, in the recent times, there has been a decrease in snowfall and an increase in the temperature of this city. Hence, preserving snow in Maizuru is difficult as compared to Hokkaido or Tohoku. In this light, it is necessary to develop an economical and technically advanced snow air conditioning system for our dormitory. The purpose of this research is to investigate air conditioning systems for use in Maizuru that experiences relatively less snowfall than Hokkaido or Tohoku. This research has proved the effectiveness of snow air conditioning systems for use in Maizuru.
P-38

Title:  Applying microfinance technique of appropriate eco technology for afforestation and lighting: development and sustenance in developing countries

Author(s): KUROSAWA Katsuhiko (Seikei University)

                      SANGEETA Sinha (Centre for Renewable Energy and Environmental Research)

                      SANJAY Kumar (Centre for Renewable Energy and Environmental Research)

                      KOJIMA Toshinori* (Seikei University, Edith Cowan University)

Climate change affects the poor most. Inadequacy of capacity, fragile economic strength, and weak institutional capabilities, makes them vulnerable to the climate changes and causes decline in economic condition, with a loss of livelihood and opportunities to maintain even subsistence levels of existence. Nonetheless, when assistance is shifted from providing long-term access to sustainable financial services to communities, and towards emergency relief, this only intensifies the problem.

Microfinance in developing countries can provide poor people with the means to diversify accumulate and manage the assets needed to become less susceptible to shocks and stresses and/or better able to deal with their impacts. Initially it was limited to economic growth only. However, its ability in scaling up and facilitating wide-spread growth in business activity can be used to address the environmental impact of micro-enterprise activity.

The concept of triple bottom line of “profits, people, and planet” - that is, maintaining financial viability while advancing the social interests of stakeholders and protecting the environment, must be incorporated in the sustainability clause of Microfinance, provided services better match client needs and livelihoods. In this paper possibility of introducing microfinance for (a) aforrestation activity and, (b) rural energy requirement (lighting and cooking), is discussed. Initial results indicate microfinance for climate change has immense potential for ecological sustainability and growth. Besides, the efforts of micro-enterprises under microfinance can provide a lot of impact and positive energy in revitalizing the climatic conditions.

P-39

Title:  Impact of  Haze on the Oil Palm Productictivity in Malaysia

Author(s): LEAN SOON Heng (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)

                   MUSTAFA KAMAL Abdul Aziz (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)

This project paper is to study the impacts of Haze hit Malaysia in long term effects on the oil palm productivity in Malaysia. Findings of project paper is to used as Haze Watch in the palm oil estate as the  Action Guides in monitoring in order to mitigate the Haze impacts in palm oil estate. Haze is an uncontrollable factor to oil palm owners in Malaysia and even Malaysia Government is not able to prevent the hazy environment in Malaysia. Haze, a continuous menace appeared the sky in Malaysia since 1990s until today become its happening becomes annual event. In 1991, 1994 & 1997, Haze has continuously plagued Malaysian into “Haze Fear” in 21st century with APIs hit above Very Unhealthy level at 300 ug/m3 in 2004 and 2005.

 The most badly Haze Crisis hit Malaysia was the Haze Catastrophe of 1997, where Malaysia Government declared “State of Emergency” in Sarawak.  In September 1997, during 15 days stretch, API levels soared up above Extremely Hazardous level (over 500 ug/m3) to 850 ug/m3 in Sarawak. At the same time, West Malaysia overall recorded APIs between range Very Unhealthy level (201 to 300 ug/m3).

 All these Hazy years, this Particulate is believed affecting human health of impairing respiratory function to high risk public group like children, elderly folks, patients who suffering from asthma, bronchitis and related cardiovascular . Besides affecting public health; the Particulates are continuously accumulated in the air and they are not easily settle down or disappear from the air.

 Malaysia as the among top  producer and exporter of oil palm to the world is also concerning above the seriousness of the impacts of Haze cause the palm oil productivity is tend to be reduced. Previous modeling of the effects on ‘Haze’ on oil palm productivity and yield by Henson IE, 2000; an increasing incidence of atmospheric pollution in solar radiation has promoted concern over the possible long term effect on oil palm yields. The results of the modeling exercise were related to palm performance in other regions (Climate and Mean Bunch Yields in three regions of oil palm cultivation in Colombia) with contrasting radiation receipts. Therefore, this study is only focusing the collection of total Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) & Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Yield by States when Haze hit during the period of 1990 to 2006 from the data from Malaysian Oil Palm Statistics, which from the main states of palm oil producers in Malaysia.

P-40

Title: ECO network systems with data concentrators having multi-sensors

Author(s): ANSAI Tsutomu (Ibaraki National College of Technology)

TAMURA Hiroshi (Hitachi Hosho Setsubi)

KUMA Takafumi (Hitachi Hosho Setsubi)

KOBAYASHI Nobukatsu (Hitachi Hosho Setsubi)

KAWAMATA Takahiro (Ibaraki National College of Technology)

YOSHII Tsuyoshi (Ibaraki National College of Technology)

            TANABE Takaya (Ibaraki National College of Technology)

We present a prototype system that consists of a server and concentrator with sensors. They are connected using common TCP/IP network and the concentrator automatically sends the data of sensors to the server. The data concentrator can control seven digital sensors and two analog sensors and it intends to offer an intelligent monitoring in a small office.

The digital sensors detect the office condition of illumination lamps, opening/closing operation of a door and windows, and infrared radiation sensor, and the analog sensors also detect the temperatures of the office and the system. Since the data concentrator has the interface to meet RS-485 standards, it can control the digital wattmeter and measure the power consumption of the office continuously. 

The concentrator can send the sensor status using e-mail on a regular schedule and in a particular case. The sensing mode of the concentrator can be controlled by a wireless switch, which can change the mode between day and night. Since the concentrator has output ports that contain two relay outputs and four transistor outputs, it can control the condition of office equipment quickly.

The server accumulates the data sent form the concentrator, analyzes the condition of the office and then sends the advice and status of the office to the office owner timely. Our system offers a simple and compact method monitoring the conditions of the small office. Therefore, we can achieve an ecological operation at a small office.

P-41

Title:  Application of Nanotechnology in Earthen Pot System for Arid Area Afforestation

Author(s): KUROSAWA Katsuhiko (Seikei University)

                      SANGEETA Sinha (Centre for Renewable Energy and Environmental Research)

                      SANJAY Kumar (Centre for Renewable Energy and Environmental Research)

                      KOJIMA Toshinori* (Seikei University, Edith Cowan University)

In arid areas, scarcity of irrigation quality water is a major problem through out the world. The problem is further compounded by reduction in water use efficiency due to porous character of sandy soil. Limitations of using fertilizers and pesticides due to these two factors further reduce techno-economic feasibility. Underground irrigation, solar green house etc. has been difficult to use for arid area afforestation due to problems related to man power availability, maintenance and economics. Application of nanotechnology in conjunction with earthen pot system has potential to bring revolution in the field of arid afforestation and even agriculture. The concept is similar to that of zeolite used as zeoponic. Zeoponics increase nutrient retention, reduce environmental nutrient losses and reduce fertilizer requirements by establishing a replenishable and balanced nutrient supply in the plant root zone.

Earthen pot system with nano fertilizer and neem pesticide is developed and experimented for arid area plantation in Madhya Pradesh Province of India. Earthen pot system increases the water use efficiency and nano fertilizer and pesticide (neem) in emulsion form increases productivity by ~ 40% in some cases indicating that use efficiency has been greatly increased. The Eco-technology developed is based upon local materials (earthen pot) and easy to handle and has immense potential in mitigating environmental degradation.

P-42

Title:  Development of a cultivation technology of fast growing trees for energy-crop production in a temperate region of Japan

Author(s):  AIKAWA Shin-ichi (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)

            SATO Tamotsu (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)

          TANOUCHI Hiroyuki (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)

          UTSUGI Hajime (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)

 Production of bio-energy is a growth sector with high social needs. In Japan, bio-ethanol is considered to be an alternative transportation fuel, and many research and development of related technology are in progress. To develop the technology of energy-crop production, a cultivation trial of fast growing trees was conducted in a central region of Japan. In September 2009, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and E. nitens were planted in low (10,000 trees/ha) and high (20,000 trees/ha) density. And each of them were cultivated with (120 kg-N/ha/y) and without fertilizer. Three months after planting, the height growth was largest in E. camaldulensis and smallest in E. nitens. These Eucalyptus species became larger under low density, fertilized condition. R. pseudoacacia which was a deciduous tree was not affected by cultivate condition. Ten months after planting, R. pseudoacacia became highest and E. nitens remained lowest. In all species, their height growths were affected by density and fertilizer, and no interaction was detected between the effect of density and fertilizer. The low-density planting enlarged tree height growth by 4% in average, and the fertilizer application enlarged the growth by 25% in average. However, cultivation without fertilizer would be more efficient, because the fertilizer application was relatively high-cost process in the afforestation work. Therefore, it was considered that the high density planting of R. pseudoacacia without fertilizer would be the best cultivation technology for the production of woody energy-crop in a central region of Japan.

P-43

Title:  Study on Application of Automatic Air-conditioning Control System Using Weather Forecasting Data for the Public Facilities

Author(s): MATSUMOTO Wakana (Sendai National College of Technology)

            UTSUMI Yasuo (Sendai National College of Technology)

           KIMURA Ryushi (Sendai National College of Technology)

The Kyoto Protocol came into effect on February 16th 2005, Japan has pledged to reduce its 1990 emissions by 6 percent during First Commitment Period (2008-2005). On the other hand, CO2 emissions are increasing by 36.7 percent in business and others sector, by 28.8 percent in welfare sector. Energy consumption for air conditioning (cooling and heating) and lighting is occupied as a whole in the two sectors. Therefore, it may be effective for energy conservation to treat them by validated solutions.

In this study, automatic air conditioning control system equipped with BEMS function and simulation engine for calculating heat load in real time_(named “BACFlex”) was installed at school building. The purpose is to improve the accuracy of calculation and control for indoor climate by real time simulation not only to predict heat load in design stage, but also to reproduce the load after the execution of work.

Object for measurement, control, and simulation is ground floor and second floor of Sendai national college of technology (regional innovation center) in Miyagi-, Japan.  Automatic control system is made up by three functions that are the data measurement, the control of heat source, and the simulation of heat load, using TRNSYS (building heat load simulation program) and GAMS (mathematical programming program).

In this paper, 1) the method of prediction of building heat load using the data of weather forecasting, and 2) the results comparison of predicted data to actual measured data were introduced.

P-44

Title: Slow Sand Filtration and its Biological Basis of Community-based Practice for Water Supply

Author(s): TAKEUCHI Juni (Kure National College of Technology)

          IKEZAKI Marina (former student at Kure National College of Technology)

YOSHIMOTO Yuki (former postgraduate student at Shinshu University)

          NAKAMOTO Nobutada (NPO-Community Water Supply Support Centre)

 Slow sand filters were studied at several water works in Nagano and Hiroshima Prefectures, Japan, by epi-fluorescent microscopy, viable and non-viable enumeration.  Filamentous algae, such as Melosira and Fragilaria, mainly contribute to the above-sand bed vegetation, forming algal matrix and producing dissolved oxygen and organic matter; both enhance grazing by invertebrates and degradation by saprobic bacteria.  After having been grazed, the filamentous diatoms were succeeded by into Spirogyra, the most common Chlorophyta group.  A model experiment with shade clearly showed the difference in bacterial respiring activity after the CTC (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride) staining. Use of any chemicals would damage these useful meio- and micro-organisms, leading to the harden surface of the sand mass, alongside the changes in the flora and fauna.  Sources of water, i.e., groundwater, riverine and reservoir origins would primarily affect the filtration efficiency, according to their own contaminants of either clay minerals from rivers or phytoplankton from reservoirs.  Thus, groundwater would be preferable because of a few contaminants.  Both cellulolytic and sulphate-reducing bacteria were found abundantly in the upper layer of the sand bed, but the latter would be normally dormant unless the whole water is turned to be anaerobic.  Trapped matter within the bed looks dirty, but the associated microbes may be useful to eliminate feacal and non-feacal coliforms, which were simultaneously detected on a CHROMagarTM ECC plate.  Typical results of the bacterial removal were demonstrated using a cascade filtration apparatus. Slow sand filtration does not require chemicals and electricity to operate, but presents the most efficient way to make raw water safe to drink via the biological processes, ranging from large cities to rural towns.  Hence, this is the best choice for the near future settings to pursue environmentally sustainable lifestyles.

P-45

Title:Electrochemical cell performance of a Sr(Zr0.95Y0.05)O3-σ added Ni-Co-YSZ anode for the oxidation of methane

Author(s): ISHIGA Hiroyuki (Nagaoka University of Technology )

           TEOH Wahtzu (Nagaoka University of Technology)

           SATO Kazunori (Nagaoka University of Technology)

Carbon deposition due to the methane decomposition and disproportionate reaction of carbon monoxide cause loss of cell performance and poor long-term stability of solid oxide fuel cells. The direct oxidation of methane and stability of the cell performance have therefore been studied for a solid oxide fuel cell consisting of the NiCo-YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia) based cermet, YSZ electrolyte, and LSM ((La0.85Sr0.15)MnO3). It was found that the addition of SZY (Sr(Zr0.95Y0.05)O3-σ) up to 10 mol% to YSZ in the anode increased the stability of the cell performance for the direct oxidation methane without losing the cell performance. The retardation of carbon deposition from the adsorbed methane molecules is probably caused be the supply of hydrated protons through the proton-conducting SZY grains uniformly distributed in the cermet anode.

P-46

Title: Microstructural Investigation of GDC Electrolyte Layer Deposited by Dropping Process- Technique in Metal-supported SOFCs

Author(s):   JIRATCHAYA Ayawanna (Mae Fah Luang University)

           KAZUNORI Sato (Nagaoka University of Technology)

                      DARUNEE Wattanasiriwech (Mae Fah Luang University)

                   SUTEE Wattanasiriwech (Mae Fah Luang University)

Because of the robust mechanical property and reduced materials cost that the metal-support for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) provides, the metal-supported SOFCs (MS-SOFCs) are expected as a very promising candidate for commercial power generation equipments. The number one challenge for development of MS-SOFCs nowadays is an attempt to fabricate the porous electrode/dense electrolyte directly on top of the porous metal substrate using a simple and cost-effective process. In this study, the dropping process-technique is proposed for depositing an electrolyte layer on a porous metal substrate since it has an uncomplicated procedure and requires low-cost equipments. Inexpensive and low carbon type 430L stainless steel powder (SS430L) was used to prepare the porous substrate by powder metallurgy technique. NiO-GDC anode powders (6:4 and 5:5 weight ratios) were prepared in alcohol-based polymeric binders and applied on the presintered SS430L substrate by printing method. 10 mol%Gd2O3-doped CeO2 powder (10GDC) synthesized by solution combustion technique was used to prepare a GDC colloidal suspension before depositing on the low-temperature prefired NiO-GDC anode/SS430L substrate. The three-layered cells (10GDC/NiO-GDC/SS430L) were sintered at 1300°C and 1350°C for 3 h in Ar, H2 and mixed Ar-H2 containing reducing atmospheres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the influences of GDC suspension solid content, the number of dropping, temperature and sintering atmosphere on the microstructure of 10GDC electrolytes on NiO-GDC/SS430L. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to analyze the interfacial interaction between 10GDC/NiO-GDC layer and SS430L substrate. SEM analysis showed microstructure variations with higher sinterability for 10GDC layer with higher solid content, the number of dropping and sintering temperature. Microstructure with higher homogeneity was observed for 10GDC layer sintered in H2 atmosphere. Oxide formation of Cr and Fe was detected for SS430L substrate sintered in Ar and mixed Ar-H2 atmosphere. This formation induces a significant expansion in the SS430L substrate and damage of electrolyte/anode layer due to the generation of a high interfacial stress caused by the difference in their thermal expansion coefficients from substrate expansion.

P-47
Title: Relations between types of hydrometeor and surface temperature under different weather conditions

Author(s): FUJITA Manato (Nagaoka University of Technology)

                      KATSUSHIMA Takafumi (Nagaoka University of Technology)

KUMAKURA Toshiro (Nagaoka University of Technology) 

           YAMAGUCHI Satoru (Snow and Ice Research Center, NIED)

TAKEUCHI Yukari (Tohkamachi Experimental Station, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)

MURAKAMI Shigeki (Tohkamachi Experimental Station, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute)

ISHIZAKA Masaaki (Snow and Ice Research Center, NIED)

TAMURA Moriaki (Tamura Snow Measurement Laboratory)

Snowfall occurs even when surface air temperature is greater than 0 degree Celsius. It is important to discriminate types of hydrometeor to validate physical model simulations of snow. And it is also important to forecast the types of hydrometeor to plan snow removal activities. As a simple method of discriminate types of hydrometeor, we usually use the boundary surface-air-temperature (T50) between the rainfall and the snowfall but it spacially or temporally has different properties.

Two main pressure patterns, which were monsoon-oriented and low-pressure-oriented patterns, were focused to explain the properties (Hasemi, 1991).He showed that the different vertical distributions of air temperature were largely related to derived T50 the in two pressure patterns. It seems that the different T50s should be observed in each precipitation event because the lower atmosphere in each event has different heat content each other. Then we attempt to obtain every T50 in each precipitation event using data on some special observation such as video recording or snow detecting. We find that the frequency of rainfall/snowfall in temperature is different each other, for example, one of them shows steep distribution at T50 and another shows more moderate distribution. These results suggest that we must derive the frequency distributions or T50s in shorter time-scale than one winter season.

P-48

Title:  Development of simple pyranometer using PV-cell array

Author(s): SUGIYAMA Satomi* (Toyohashi University of Technology)

                      Mohd Arif Farizul (Toyohashi University of Technology)

           OKE Shinichiro (Tsuyama National collage of Technology)

                      SUDA Yoshiyuki (Toyohashi University of Technology)

                   TAKIKAWA Hirofumi (Toyohashi University of Technology)

                   KAWASHIMA Kazuko (Aichi Agricultural Research Center)

It is important that the solar irradiance in greenhouse is correctly measured in order to automatically control the greenhouse condition with appropriate feedback. In the greenhouse, the unnatural shadow is casted by the structures of the greenhouse. Therefore, a conventional thermopile-type pyranometer (TP pyranometer) is difficult to employ, since it outputs incorrect irradiance when unnatural shadow casts only on it. Then, we have been proposed new simple pyranometer using PV array, called PV array pyranometer. The short circuit current of PV array consists of series PV units and bypass diodes is not changed when some of the units are shaded, and varied linearly with the solar irradiance. We have been designed and examined two types of PV array pyranometers. Both were placed on a A4-size board. The prototype 1 (PVAP1) was composed of three long-type PV strings, which were arranged in C shape. The prototype 2 (PVAP2) was composed of four rectangular-type PV cells, which were arranged at near every corners of the board. These prototype PV array pyranometers and a conventional TP pyranometer were set in the greenhouse and tested. As a result, when the TP pyranometer indicated low solar irradiance due to the unnatural shadow, the outputs of PVAP1 and PVAP2 indicated the value to be possibly correct. The PVAP2 showed better performance to be possibly correct than the PVAP1.

  Furthermore, the influence of the temperature on PVAP was evaluated, since it is well known that the PV unit is affected by temperature. The PVAP2, a TP pyranometer, and a thermometer were set at the roof of the laboratory building and the outputs were measured for several months. After the analysis of the relations of these outputs, the temperature correction to the PVAP2 could give more accurate change of solar irradiance.

P-49

The Development of New Rice Utilization by Gelatinized-Retrograded Process for Desterilize the Environmental Control Function of Rice Field

Author(s): SUGAWARA Masamichi (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

                 SATO Tatsuya (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

                      TANABE Manabu (Bourbon Corporation)

                      MINEO Shigeru (Bourbon Corporation)

           SUGAWARA Masayoshi (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

  The rice fields farming has been built up as a key system that plays a major role not only as food production but also to mitigate the severe geographical and climatic conditions and to preserve environment that are highly effective on preventing floods and fostering water resources, equal to those of dams. Japanese rice consumption has decreased by the change of the dietary habits or acceleration of demographic aging. The aim of this study is to make effective use of fallow or neglected rice fields and promote economic development in rural areas by development of new rice utilization by the starch gelatinize-retrograded process. Retrograded starch digestibility is decreases typically.

  High-amylose rice cultivars Hokuriku 207, Niigata 79 and Yumetoiro used in this study were high amylose content in rice starch. Polished rice kernel were washed and soaked in water, and steam cooked under several conditions. After cooking, rice were loosened immediately and stored at 5ºC for 24 hours for retrogradation, and dried at 55ºC for 24 hours. The processed rice was determined gelatinization ratio, dietary fiber and resistant starch contents. Rice moistures after steam cooking were about 30%, and gelatinization ratios were Yumetoiro; 32.4, Niigata 79; 34.6, and Hokuriku 207; 15.9. Dietary fiber contents after gelatinize-retrograded process increased twice.

P-50

The Development of New Rice Utilization by Heat-Moisture Treatment for Desterilize the Environmental Control Function of Rice Field

                 SATO Tatsuya (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

                      SUGAWARA Masamichi (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

                      TANABE Manabu (Bourbon Corporation)

                      MINEO Shigeru (Bourbon Corporation)

           SUGAWARA Masayoshi (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

  The rice fields farming has been built up as a key system that plays a major role not only as food production but also to mitigate the severe geographical and climatic conditions and to preserve environment that are highly effective on preventing floods and fostering water resources, equal to those of dams. The Japanese rice consumption has decreased by the change of the dietary habits or acceleration of demographic aging. The aim of this study is to make effective use of fallow or neglected rice fields and promote economic development in rural areas by development of new rice utilization by the heat-moisture treatment process. Heat-moisture treatment above a temperature of 100ºC under insufficient moisture for gelatinization increases the resistant starch.

  High-amylose rice cultivar, Hokuriku 207 used in this study was high amylose content in rice starch. Dry polished rice kernel was heat-moisture treated using 20L cooking boiler at 0.2MPa for 5 minutes. After treatment, total dietary fiber and resistant starch contents and in vitro starch digestion rate were determined. By the heat-moisture treatment, total dietary fiber content increased and in vitro starch digestion rate decreased. Starch that break down quickly during digestion and release glucose rapidly into the bloodstream have a high glycemic index; that break down more slowly, releasing glucose more gradually, have a low glycemic index. By heat-moisture treatment, rice glycemic index would fell, and prevention of metabolic syndrome could be expected.

P-51

Title:  Spherical-Shell Shaped SrTiO3 Crystals

Authors:  NAKAMURA Tomokazu, HAMAI Ryo, TOSHIMA Takeshi*, TAFU Masamoto, CHOHJI Tetsuji

Department of Ecotechnology Engineering, Toyama National College of Technology, Hongo, Toyama 939-8630, Japan.

*Fax: +81-76-493-5476

*E-mail address: t.toshima@nc-toyama.ac.jp

In recent material engineering, it is final research goal to control the shapes of functional materials in nano-micro scale. By the controlling, it is expected 1) selective growth of crystal faces which have good catalytic property 2) improvement of the reactivity and responsiveness by rising surface area per mass 3) development of new devices combining their functionality and own shapes 4) appearance of new physical and/or chemical phenomena. Crystals of perovskite structures having various functionalities by the changing combination for structural elements. Especially, SrTiO3 crystals, which is one of the perovskite structured crystals, form unique shape such as multi-pod shape obtained by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) method.

In this study, we have been tried to control the SrTiO3 crystals growth condition of SHS method; which is very simple synthesis method, starting materials that put on the titanium boat is ignited by the arc discharge that is used by titanium electrode to give energy. The combustion wave is propagated from end to end by the chemical reaction heat. Most products, obtained under the gas to solid phase reaction, were spherical shapes and their diameter were about 1-100 μm. By the optical microscope observation, we discovered that some spherical shaped crystals form spherical-shell shaped structure like a balloon. By the scanning electron microscope analysis, their surface structures are broadly categorized 1) single crystal-like structures which are included smooth surface or dendrite-like structure, 2) poly-crystals structures which are massed nano-cubic crystals, needle-like crystals or multi-pod shaped crystals.

P-52

Title: A Development of Growth Monitoring System of Crop Based on 2D-FFT Results of Camera Images

Author(s): SHIMAZAKI Tsuneyuki (Toyama National College of Technology)

                    TAKADA Eiji (Toyama National College of Technology)

        YAMAGUTI Tatsuya (Toyama Prefectural Agricultural, Forestry & Fisheries Research Center)

                    SAKAMOTO Toshihiro (National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences)

                    SHIBAYAMA Michio (National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences)

In recent years, besides the decrease of agricultural workers by aging, inexperienced workers have been increasing because young people and retired people began to engage in agriculture. Our group has been discussing the system to estimate the crop growth situation using the images by the camera installed in farm field. We have indicated a prospect of inferring crop growth status by Fourier analysis of measured data in 2007. In this study, we attempt to confirm the reproducibility of those previous results, and consider other processing methods. We set up the measuring system composed of a digital camera (Nikon, D40), an circular polarizing filter and a digital luminometer (CUSTOM, LX-105) at the predetermined place in an agricultural rice field of Toyama Prefectural Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center at every measurement opportunity from June to October of 2010, where the efficiency of the camera had been calibrated beforehand. We measured the images so that the crops were not covered by the shadows of other crops or the clouds. The digital camera images were converted into two dimensional frequency domain images by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The time dependence of the average pixel value in a specific frequency region has shown a similar tendency with the measured data in 2007 during the early periods of the rice phenology. As it has been shown that the results were affected by wind, we have to exclude the images measured under high wind. When the ears appeared from the crops, the FFT results showed different spectral distributions compared with the results shown in the earlier periods. We may grasp the growth situation of the ears by watching the change of the average pixel value of  frequency region that changes greatly with ear development.

P-53

Title:  A Fundamental Study on Applying Radiation Measurement Technique to Snow/Ice Monitoring

Author(s): SAKAI Yousuke (Toyama National College of Technology)

TAKADA Eiji(Toyama National College of Technology)

Snow density is currently calculated by mass and volume of the fallen snow. This paper examines the possibility of real-time snow density measurement with attenuation of radiation. Although our final goal is to measure the density of the falling snow, in this study, we examined possibility of measuring the density of piled up snow with the radiation measurement technique. As the density of ice is almost equal to water, we measured the radiation attenuation by water layer instead of snow layer. As snow is composed of ice and air, the density of snow is determined by the content of air. In this experiment, the distance between the radiation source and the detector was set to 30 cm constant. We changed the thickness of the water layer from 0 cm to 20 cm between the source and detector. We measured the attenuation of the gamma rays, where two gamma ray sources of a 137Cs (662 keV) source and an 241Am (59.5 keV) source were used. As a result, the gamma rays from the 241Am source were attenuated to the half in the water layer of 5cm, which is corresponding to the snow layer is 25 cm with density of 0.2 g/cm3. It was shown that we could measure the significant change of the effective snow density by the attenuation of the gamma rays. We confirmed that the low energy gamma rays showed larger attenuation than high energy ones. These results show the possibility of vertical density measurements of piled up snow layers with two small diameter holes in which a radiation source and a detector were put and moved along them. The system will reduce the burden of the researchers who usually make larger holes to see the layer structure of the snow.

P-54

Title:  Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 films by electrodeposition

Author(s): KOIKE Junpei (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

            CHINO Kotaro (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

                 SHIRAI Tomoyuki (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

ARAKI Hideaki (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is one of the most interesting material for absorber layer of thin film solar cells because of its suitable optical band gap of about 1.5 eV and its large absorption coefficient of over 104 cm-1.

Thin film solar cells based on CZTS absorbers were fabricated successfully by sulfurization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn films.

The Cu-Zn-Sn precursors have been electrodeposited from three-electrode system with platinum counter and Ag/AgCl reference electrodes using a potentiostat with a current integrator. Depositions were made in potentiostatic mode at room temperature without stirring. The samples were deposited electrolyte containing CuSO4, ZnSO4, SnCl2, and C6H5O7Na3 used as complexing agent on Mo-coated glass substrates.

Then the precursors were sulfurized at 580°C in N2 + sulfur vapor atmosphere for 2h. The structure, morphology, and composition of the thin films have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF).

 The thin film solar cell was completed by a chemical bath-deposited CdS buffer layer, a sputtered ZnO:Al window layer, and deposited Al upper electrode. The J-V characteristics of the thin film solar cells structure of glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO:Al/Al were measured.

P-55

Title:  Fabrication of Cu2ZnGeS4 thin film solar cells

Author(s): CHINO Kotaro (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

            KOIKE Junpei (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

           SHIRAI Tomoyuki (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

          HOSHIBA Jiro (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

          ARAKI Hideaki (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

 Cu2ZnGeS4 (CZGS) is a new type of an absorber for thin film solar cells. CZGS has an energy gap of 2.1 eV and is particularly promising for use in single solar cells in high-voltage modules and in the uppermost cells in tandem systems. Staked precursors of Zn, Cu, and Ge were fabricated on glass/Mo substrate by vacuum deposition. At first, a Zn layer is deposited on the substrate, and then a Cu layer is deposited on the Zn layer. Finally, the Zn/Cu/Ge precursor is obtained by depositing a Ge layer on the Cu layer. In this study, both thicknesses of Zn and Cu were set constant as 1.8 kÅ and 2.4 kÅ, respectively. Only the thickness of Ge was varied from 1.8 kÅ to 2.2 kÅ. The precusors were sulfurized at temperature of 580 ˚C for 2 hours in an atmosphere of N2 + sulfur vapor to fabricate CZGS thin film. The sulfurized films exhibited X-ray diffraction peaks attributable to CZGS with tetragonal structure. The J-V characteristics of the photovoltaic cells with the structure glass/Mo/CZGS/CdS/ZnO:Al/Al were measured.

P-56

Determination and Physiological Functions of Active Quinones in Plant Intact Leaves

Author(s)

                 AKIYAMA Yuki  (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

                      HIYAMA Asami (Nagaoka National College of Technology)

                      SHIBATA Masaru  (Nagaoka National College of Technology )

  The electron transport chain (ETC) plays an important role in the processes of photosynthesis in the chloroplast and of respiration in the mitochondrion. Regulation in electron transfer rate in each ETC is closely linked to the maintenance of suitable those functions under the various natural conditions. Environmental stresses as high light and low temperature cause a lethal effect via the over-reduction in chloroplastic ETC of photosystem II. To prevent PSII over-reduction, plant cells have organelle-networks (photorespiratory metabolism and redox shuttling) metabolically connecting mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Plastoquinone (PQ) and ubiquinone (UQ) are electron carries in the chloroplastic and mitochondria ETC, respectively. Redox states in quinones indicate electron transport efficiency in each ETC. However, determination and redox states in functional quinones have not been reported in intact leaves. It is known that quinone redox in chlorplastic ETC affects chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves. Therefore, we focus on relations in quinone states obtained by the combined methods of direct (high performance liquid chromatography) and indirect (chlorophyll fluorescence) measurements. Accurate determination and estimations in redox states of active quinones were carried out in leaves treated by high specific ETC inhibitors. The obtained results indicate that functional quinones are only half as leave quinones and the redox states in high-reduction level under natural growth conditions.

P-57

Title: Development of the Autonomous Weeding Robot for Rice Cultivation

Authors: MAEDA Kojrio (Fukui National College of Technology)

KAMEYAMA Kentaro (Fukui National College of Technology)

Recently, pesticide-free productions of vegetables and cereal crops have attracted much attention because of the growing of the awareness about health.

However, it is really recognized as a problem that pesticide-free production, especially weeding in the paddy field requires many time and manpower. To solve such a problem, a method called "rice-duck farming" has been attempted. Rice-duck farming is a method to put rice-ducks in the rice paddy. Then, rice-ducks eradicate weeds by putting, beat up, and eating weeds. However, it is difficult to apply this method to extensive rice paddy because of its breeding and corresponding problems. So, development of autonomous weeding robots has been expected.

For example, a robot developed by mitsui et al.[1] has caterpillar tracks and weeds by stepping on weeds by them, however, this weeding methods may hurt rice plant. To solve such a problem, the authors develop a small weeding robot which has float and rounded light body. Weeding feature is devised to prevent only weeds' progress by considering the difference between weeds' and rice's roots. The basic capability of the developed robot is tested in paddy field.

[1] Mitsui, Kobayashi, Kagiya, Asano and Bando: Research on the advances technology for organic agriculture -Development of rice field rover for weeding out-, Gifu prefectural Research Institute of Information Technology, vol. 5, 2003.

P-58

Title: Control of the Multi-jointed Arms Robot by Ordering 3D-point with Gesture

Author: TSUKIDA Kyouhei (Fukui National College of Technology)

KAMEYAMA Kentaro (Fukui National College of Technology)

Recently, the manually-manipulated robot arm accomplished remarkable development, and is used in a lot of fields. The aims to use these are wide-ranging, but it is common features that work efficiency will be improved if an operator can operate some arms. However, general operating methods, for example, operation by lever, master-slave system and so on, are not cut out for such a objective. Therefore, in this paper, the authors propose a new intuitive method to operate robot arms with human gesture.

Proposed method directs a point in space to the robot arm by human's head and hand gesture. The point is the intersection point of the line of the sight and direction pointed by finger. Then, the tip of the robot arm moves to the point automatically. Alteration of the robot arm to move is directed by the hand gesture, similarly. 3D-Gyro sensors are used to detect gestures because it is easy to use.

In this paper, fundamental motion tests and evaluation of the proposed system has been done. The evaluated system has two three-degrees-of-freedom arms which has actuator to grip objects.

P-59

Title:  Measurements of a Velocity Profile for the Sharp Turn Corner Shape using Multi-point LDV

Author(s): SAKAMOTO Kiichi (Toyama National College of Technology)

     HACHIGA Tadashi (Toyama National College of Technology)

Polymer electrolyte fuel cells, which have been developed for mobile equipment, are mainly direct methanol fuel cells. From the standpoint of safety to a human body, it is desirable to use ethanol as fuel. In order to improve the performance of direct ethanol fuel cells, it is necessary to investigate the fuel flow pattern in the anode flow channel with many sharp turn corners in the fuel cell, and to improve the channel shape. So in this study, the velocity distribution of the water flow in the sharp turn corner shape was measured using an advanced MLDV system. These values were equal to that calculated from the indicated values of a flowmeter and succeeded in imaging the flow velocity distribution in the sharp turn corner shape.  The MLDV was constructed in order to apply linear measurement techniques to a series of single points.

The optical system for the advanced MLDV is dual-beam forward-scatter type system. An SU-61E-785-80 semiconductor laser unit, which had a laser diode with a maximum output power of 60.6mW and a wavelength of 785nm, was used to improve the measurement. A half mirror was used to split the laser beam and make the two laser beams parallel to each other. Then, the beam was spread out in a fanlike shape by the rod lens. The fan-shaped laser was made into a rectangular light plane by the cylindrical lens. The two parallel light planes, which pass through the cylindrical lens, intersect in line segments at the focal points. Namely, the two laser light planes are focused and cross in a linear measuring region, forming a fringe pattern. When a particle in the flow crosses these interference fringes a Doppler signal is emitted. The Doppler frequency is linearly proportional to the particle velocity.

P-60

Title: On the DGPS Positioning Accuracy at Toyama

Author: KOYAMA Yuji (Toyama National College of Technology)

    KWAI Masashi(Toyama National College of Technology)

 Nowadays, the positioning accuracy of satellite system by point positioning is about 10m. This accuracy is not enough to perform more efficient systems of transport and traffic such as car navigation systems or man navigation systems. So, errors including in GPS pseudo range data are checked at the reference points with accurate positions, and transmit the errors in real time to moving vehicles such as ships, aircrafts, cars and so on. The moving vehicles can determine their own positions with about 1 meter accuracy by using the data.  In this way, the system for improvement of GPS positioning accuracy is called differential GPS system.

 Around Toyama at present, the JCG DGPS System that transmit the correction data from Hegurashima station by radio wave with a frequency of 295 KHz and the MSAS that transmit the correction data from MTSAT by radio wave with a frequency of 1575.42 MHz are available. Therefore DGPS positioning at Toyama National College of Technology has been conducting using JCG DGPS system and MSAS since April 2010 in order to research about the positioning accuracies of DGPS systems at Toyama.

 In the result, the positioning accuracy using JCG's correction data from Hegurashima station is degradative in the night because of missing DGPS correction data by degradation of signal to noise ratio of radio signal.  On the other hand, I found that whether day or night the stable DGPS positioning is possible by MSAS. I will report about these results.

P-61
Title:  CONSTRUCTION OF EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM USING THE COMMUNITY FM

Authors:     ISOSAKI Shota (1) (Fukui National College of Technology)

            OKUDA Atsushi(2) (Fukui National College of Technology)

1 Advanced Engineering Course , Fukui National College of Technology,

   Geshi-cho, Sabae, Fukui, 916-8507, Japan.

   2 Department of Electronics and information Engineering, Fukui National College of Technology,

   Geshi-cho, Sabae, Fukui, 916-8507, Japan.

   E-mail: a-okuda@fukui-nct.ac.jp

 When a disaster like as earthquake or “guerrilla” downpour occurs, Community FM broadcasting

is more sure and more stable method than a radio of administration or mail magazines for the people

to obtain the information in the disaster area. Most FM emergency broad casting systems are introduced

by constructing it in its own right or customizing a system which has been somewhere succeeded.

 We try to construct a low-cost emergency broad casting system which can be widely-used. We have already developed an system which can get an emergency information,  give an starting signal and

broadcast it. In addition, we develop a queue in order to cope with plural information and a switching circuit to change the output for radio tower from ordinary channel to the emergency channel.

When the system, during broadcasting some information, receives another one, it constructs a queue of text files which control the mp3 files containing the information and broadcasts them one after another in the sequence of the list which describes the order of acceptance.

The switching circuit make use of PIC(16F873) and relay. To start emergency broadcasting, the broadcasting equipment sends the particular letter ‘1’ to PIC. When the PIC receives the letter, it supplies electric power to the relay and authorize the emergency broadcasting equipment to control.  We have already constructed a circuit which can send the particular letter from CGI to PIC through serial bus and control equipments.       

P-62

Title:  The Construction of Biosensor for Organophosphorus Compounds

Author(s): NAITO Junpei (Fukui National College of Technology)

TAKAYAMA Katsumi (Fukui National College of Technology)

            SUYE Shin-ichiro (University of Fukui)

           SAWADA Kazuaki (Toyohashi University of Technology)

          TANAKA Yoshikazu (Wakasawan Energy Research Center)

          MULCHANDANI Ashok (University of California)

          KURODA Kouichi (Kyoto University)

          UEDA Mitsuyoshi (Kyoto University)

Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) displayed yeast cells using Flo1 anchor were used as a biocatalyst for the organophosphorus compounds (Ops) detection such as fenitrothion, metyl parathion, and paraoxon. The concentration of p-nitrophenol produced by hydrolysis of paraoxon was monitored within 30 min at 415 nm by UV/VIS multi platereader. Michaelis constant (Km) for the OPH surface displayed cells was estimated to be 50 mM which is consistent with the value of purified OPH. The calibration curve was also obtained with useful concentration ranges from 2 to 200 ppm. The detection limits was nearly 2 ppm. Standard deviation of this method  was in order of +-5%. The long term storage stability of the enzyme activity was over 40 days when it was reserved under 4. A fiber-optical biosensing system was also constructed. The calibration curve showed linearity from 2 to 50 ppm.

P-63

Title: Overseas Internship by a KOSEN Student at a Japanese Enterprise in Shanghai.

Author(s): NAKAMORI Fumihiro (Maizuru National College of Technology)

                      NOGE Hirofumi (Maizuru National College of Technology)

I took part in the overseas internship carried out by Maizuru National College of Technology for 2 weeks in March 2010.

The aims of the overseas internship are to get practical training at Japanese companies in Asian countries as well as seeing their activities and to experience life in the locale.

The enterprise where I received training is SHANGHAI BAOLING PLASTICS which is one of MITSUBISHI CHEMICAL’s group companies.

The main work of the section in which I did my internship is “The improvement of the productivity with local workers at the factory by Industrial Engineering (I.E.)” In the first week, I took a class in I.E. in the second week, I observed the relation between productivity and the positioning of workers in the factory in terms of I.E.. As a result, while keeping the productivity I made a hypothetical plan to reduce the number of workers from 3 to 1.

In this overseas internship, the following were made clear.

SHANGHAI BAOLING PLASTICS, not to mention MITSUBISHI CHEMICAL, is very active in Shanghai.

The main work of the Japanese engineers in this company is the administration and training of the local staff.

Japanese working style is penetrated in the local branch.

In China, it is fact that personnel cost is cheaper than it is in Japan but the improvement of productivity with local workers is absolutely needed because the economy in Shanghai is growing now.

P-64

Title:  Diamond Nano-dot Arrays fabricated by Room-temperature Curing Nanoimprint Lithography using Glass-like Carbon Molds

Author(s): KIYOHARA Shuji (Maizuru National College of Technology)

          ARAKI Shinji (Maizuru National College of Technology)

          TAGUCHI Yoshio (ELIONIX INC.)

          SUGIYAMA Yoshinari (ELIONIX INC.)

          OMATA Yukiko (ELIONIX INC.)

          KURASHIMA Yuichi (University of Yamanashi)

          TAKIKAWA Hirofumi (Toyohashi University of Technology)
The diamond exhibits unique properties such as high hardness, high thermal conductivity, wide band-gap and chemical stability, and so it is expected to have various applications. For example, it can be used electron emission devices, micro-gears, optical instruments, semiconductor devices and biosensors. Therefore, the nanopatterning technique for a diamond is essential to the fabrication of functional micro/nano devices. We had already investigated the nanopatterning of chemical vapor deposited diamond films in room-temperature curing nanoimprint lithography (RTC-NIL), using diamond molds. The diamond molds had been fabricated with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen ion beam etching using polysiloxane [-R2SiO-]n with the electron beam lithography technology that we developed. The diamond molds have a lifetime approximately 100 times longer than that of silicon dioxide mold or that of silicon mold, both using a conventional NIL process. However, the maximum etching selectivity of polysiloxane film against diamond film was as low as 4.7. To overcome this problem, we have proposed the use of glass-like carbon (GC), as mold materials, which has excellent properties similar to those of the diamond, and is inexpensive, i.e., one-fifth of the diamond film.

 The maximum etching selectivity of polysiloxane film against GC was 27, which was obtained with ion energy of 400 eV. We have fabricated the GC nano-molds of cylinder and square pole dots with 500 nm diameter and width, respectively and 4 μm pitch which have a height of about 500 nm. We carried out the RTC-NIL process using the GC mold under the following optimum conditions : time from spin-coating to imprint t1 of 1 min, imprinting pressure P of 0.5 MPa and imprinting time t2 of 5 min. The resulting diameter of diamond nano-dots were in good agreement with that of the GC molds after ECR oxygen ion beam etching were fabricated.

P-65

Title:  Simulation of “Yorimawari Nami” on GPU

Author(s): MAGORI Yusuke* (Toyama National College of Technology)

            FURUYAMA Shoichi (Toyama National College of Technology)

The simulation of “Yorimawari Nami” and the conditions of the high speed calculation on GPU were studied. “Yorimawari Nami” occurs at a Toyama bay in winter. This wave has destroyed houses and embankments at the coast, and has attacked a lot of people for a long time.

The wave was occurred at the west of Hokkaido in Japanese sea. And the wave transmitted from there to the Toyama bay, therefore the wave period is 10 seconds or more. The wave attacked Toyama bay in a few days. At the time, the wave has big energy because the bottom of Toyama bay has deep and steep geometry at the near coast. The bottom friction is small.

Expecting the wave with the numerical simulation is effective method to reduce the damage by the wave. People can evacuate from the danger zone to a place of safety. NOWT-PARI has an ability to simulate for the long periodic wave exactly. When the number of the calculation grids are set 75x200 and the number of the simulation steps are 7200, the NOWT-PARI needs about 30 minutes on CPU.

The GPU is the low cost and the effective tool for the high performance computing. The GPU has the hierarchy structure, i.e., the grid, the block and thread. The number of threads in one block is the considerable parameter for the high speed calculation on the GPU.

The high speed calculation of NOWT-PARI on the GPU was realized by set a larger number of threads in one block.

P-66

Title:  Development of PC based multi channel lock in amplifier

Author(s): TAMURA Yujin (Toyama National College of Technology)

     YOSHII Yotsumi (Toyama National College of Technology)

A multi channel lock-in amplifier that can measure multiple points of the object simultaneously are used in a wide range of physics to obtain information about the material and so on. Recently signal processing and data sort outs, arrangements are mainly performed on PC. A PC based multi channel lock-in amplifier which a whole system processed by single software can easily increase channels by selecting a input port of the data acquisition device. Thus a PC based system with a minimum use of hardware can make the instrument to a small scale and low cost. In this report,   development of a PC based multi channel lock-in amplifier is described.

8 channel lock-in amplifier with software made low pass FIR filter and reference signal generator is constructed. A cut-off frequency of FIR filter can be any value. An amplitude response of the low pass FIR filter is showed. Relation between number of samples and sampling rate of the filter with a specific cut-off frequency is showed. A low level signal buried in a noise was measured by this lock-in amplifier. Correlative relationship of each channel was shown and discussed. Phase difference between each channel was observed and compared with calculated values when signals were measured with a DAQ device at the same time and showed.

P-67

Title:  Development of a design tool for active filter circuit

Author(s): OSHIMA Kazunori (Toyama National College of Technology)

            YOSHII Yotsumi (Toyama National College of Technology)

Recently, many signal processing is done by computers after analog signal is converted to digital signal. So, audio signal which is an analog signal is processed as a digital signal. It is necessary to use an analog filter circuit before analog to digital conversion. Not all of the digital circuit engineer have a capability to design a filter circuit. There are design tools that can calculate parameters of each component for a desired cut-off frequency. But, these software does not make a consideration about the condition of user, i.e. user may not have components with the suggested value. This report describes a design tool which chooses the most suitable combination of parameters from the components that the user owns.

This design tool calculates amplitude response, phase response, and cut-off frequency under the users conditions, which is parameters of components, numbers of components, lower and upper limits of cut-off frequency. Additionally, condition for stability considered when amplitude response and phase response were calculated. A design tool for low-pass filter of two to four poles Sallen-Key type is made. Amplitude response and phase response is simulated from the transfer function. The good correlation is found between the characteristic calculated by this design tool and analog circuit.

P-68

Title: Material and Bending Properties of Several Grained Aluminum Alloys with Heat

Treatment

 

Author(s):  KUMANO Tomoyuki(Kagawa National College of Technology)

                      SAKAI Takashi (Seikei University)

                      FUKUI Satoshi (Kagawa National College of Technology)

                      OMATA Hitoshi (AMADA Co., Ltd.,)

                   KOYAMA Jun-ichi (AMADA Co., Ltd.,)

   This study investigates the angle of spring back using bending tests for various aluminum alloys with different processes and heat-treatments.

   We accumulate those results in a database and analyse them statistically.

   For this study, we collect basic experimental data related to correlation with the crystal grain characteristics such as the crystal particle size and the crystal grain shape and the quantity of spring background in the bending test.

   This study is designed to elucidate the plastic deformation behavior of fine crystal grains.

   Various aluminum alloys (JIS-A1050, A5052, A5182, A6022) of 1 mm board thickness were used as main experimental materials.

   About the tissue observation result, crystal particle sizes of A1050 materials were large in comparison with A1050 materials produced by annealing.

   Regarding A5052, not so great a difference was found between batch annealing materials and CAL annealing materials.

   For that reason, it is thought that differences of annealing methods do not affect the materials.

   About bending test result at the actual machine level, regarding the angle of spring back of A5182 materials, as the distortion speed increases, the angle of spring back increases.

The result is the angle of spring back was thought to have increased because distortion, which conserves energy inside the materials, increases concomitantly with distortion speed.

P-69

Title:  Metallurgical and Springback Properties of Laser-processed Materials

Author(s):                  TANIGUCHI Ryuma(Kagawa National College of Technology)

                       SAKAI Takashi(Seikei University)

                       FUKUI Satoshi(Kagawa National College of Technology)

                       OMATA Hitoshi(AMADA Co., Ltd.,)

                       KOYAMA Jun-ichi(AMADA Co., Ltd.,)

This study is a metallurgical analysis for various laser-processed metal alloys. Materials cut from bulk using a laser apparatus show differences of material organization and material properties because irradiation sites are affected by considerable heat.  Consequently, the distortion distribution and crystal orientation distribution show different crystal orientation and distribution; the Young’s modulus and macroscopic mechanical properties differ too.  For bending work of the excised material, high-precision bending work is dependent upon accurate prediction of springback, requiring consideration of microscopic properties.  In light of that background, we selected various steel materials (SPCC, SUS, etc.) and aluminum alloy to perform this study of observation of heat differences of laser-processed materials.  The micro-Vickers hardness at various sites was investigated to determine the micro-Vickers hardness distribution.  Results of these experiments were combined for consideration of the relation between changes in the materials and their micro-Vickers hardness distribution.  Based on those results, we recognize properties of materials excised using the laser apparatus, producing highly accurate forecasts of springback.  Results of metallographic observations shows different crystalline grain sizes of the laser-processed side and center. In addition, respective hardness values of the laser-processed side, the far side, and center show differences; the difference is a constant value with distance from the cutting plane. Bending tests of heat-affected and the other zone show additional differences.  Because the SUS430 is martensite stainless steel, structural changes occur because of martensite transformation and hardening by the heat of laser processing.  Results of hardness test and metallographic observations indicate that heat effects by laser processing come to about 0.6 mm.

P-70

Title: Springback Properties with Compression for Several Materials

Author(s):  INOUE Shingo(Kagawa National College of Technology)

                      SAKAI Takashi (Seikei University)

                      FUKUI Satoshi (Kagawa National College of Technology)

                      OMATA Hitoshi (AMADA Co., Ltd.,)

                   KOYAMA Jun-ichi (AMADA Co., Ltd.,)

   This study is a analysis of “compression and bend” results for general stainless steels. Metallic materials for bending plastic forming are processed using hot or cold rolling.  When bending the as-received material, it is estimated that material characteristics will differ if differences exist in the rolling directions. In practice, if one arranges the rolling direction with one plate, many different material characteristics are obtained.  For that reason, if one wants to bend with high accuracy, then it is necessary to consider those small differentials. So, in this study, we devise new bending process, “compression and bend” which can ignore these different material characteristics. We test the process and clarify the behavior and do at the processing factory, thereby achieving highly accurate bending processing.

   In this report presents “compression and bend” results for JIS-SUS304 and JIS-SUS430 as general steel materials. The results of 400 pieces of test in JIS-SUS304 its thickness is 1.2mm, compression of about 500MPa , the springback behavior is nearly equal at different rolling direction and different lot number. But in the results of JIS-SUS430 which is probably heat influence is received, whether compressed or not, the result isn’t has great differences of springback properties compare with not compressed one. So, there is no great influences that can correct heat influences. But, it is effective for small differences of material characteristics like as-received materials.

P-71

Title:  Self-organization mechanism of topological crystals

Authors: TOSHIMA Takeshi*, NAKAMURA Tomokazu, HAMAI Ryo, MATSUMOTO Daichi, TAFU Masamoto, CHOHJI Tetsuji

 

Toyama National College of Technology, Hongo, Toyama 939-8630, Japan.

 

*Fax: +81-76-493-5476

*E-mail address: t.toshima@nc-toyama.ac.jp

Discovery of topological crystals such as nano-tubular, ring-shaped, spherical-shaped and other non-trivial shaped crystals on topology attracts us for their unique shapes; because usual crystals have only the discrete translational symmetry. Unveiling their formation mechanism is an important problem to realize mass-production and apply as new functional devices. Real-time observation is a most effective approach for the solution. In past report, we have tried the real-time observation of ring-shaped TaSe3 crystal growth and discovered that there are two formation mechanisms for ring-shaped crystals; one is template mechanism and the other is self-organization mechanism.

In this study, we introduce these mechanisms; former is needed the existence of template; for example, a metal catalysis is needed for single-wall carbon nanotubes, a droplet of chalcogenide is needed for metal tri-chalcogenide topological crystals and a bubble is needed for some spherical shaped nano-micro particles. Essentially, a field of crystallization with curvature restricts the degree of freedom of crystallizing. On the other hands, later is not needed the template; the existence of lattice defects in the system form the crystals with curvature. (Expansion of outer or reduction of inner) This result shows that there is no restriction of combination of the starting materials and crystallization methods and any materials would be able to grow as the topological crystals.

P-72

Title:  Gaseous phase silica synthesis 

Author(s): DABOUSSI Olfa (Seikei University)

            KOJIMA Toshinori (Seikei University, Professor)

The silica fines are used for different finalities such as an insolator in the semi-conductor industry, and as resin raw material. More over it is widely used in silicon industry to produce metallurgical grade silicon which is the main raw material for the polycrystalline silicon and or monocrystalline silicon manufacturing.

The conventional sol-gel is based on the liquid phase reaction via the liquid phase hydrolysis of same alkoxysilane. This process allowed high pure nano-silica. However, the sol-gel process cannot be hold continuously; besides, it is not easy to control the particle size.

In order to carry out the continuous process, the current study detailed the gaseous phase hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEES), as an alkoxysilane, is investigated. The process is a continuous process which is expected to allow the control of the particle shape. Practically, three different TEES/H2O concentration fractions and four different temperature levels were held.   

 The temperature ranged from 973 K to 1048 K and the TEES/H2O concentration fractions are varied as follow: 1/2; 1/3; 1/4. It results in the fact that, for each temperature level, the particle size is smaller when the water steam concentration is higher. Behind, the increasing temperature leads to the smaller particle size and spherical shape. The high temperature and high water steam concentration fasten the nuclei formation and retard the nuclei growth, so that the collected fine silica are formed by nuclei which are in order of less than 100 nm and show spherical shapes. 

P-73

Title:  Development of a Support Device for Digital Cameras using Adaptable Design for Challenged Persons

Author(s): YUKINO Ryoji (Maizuru National College of Technology)

           TANGE Yutaka (Maizuru National College of Technology)

Recently, assistive engineering is evolving with the social advancement of challenged persons.

In everyday life, electrical appliances such as digital cameras and mobile phones are becoming increasingly multi-functional and of higher performance. When we focus on the use of digital camera, it is difficult for a challenged person to use a camera as well as a non-handicapped person. However, there are very few support devices for taking a picture that take disabilities into account now. One of the biggest reasons is that the disabled part of the body or the degree of disability is different from person to person.

So, in this study, we have worked on the development of a support device for taking a picture with due regard to adaptable design for various disorders in the upper limb. We divided the device into three parts: moving device, shutter release device, and the input device operated by the user. We prepared three kinds of sensor switches corresponding to actual disabilities and designed an input device which is able to swap switches easily. We also designed a system which is able to manipulate a camera with only one switch and a few motions so that it can reduce the user’s labor as much as possible. Then we asked challenged persons to use the device and received their opinions about it, and improved the device to make it more user-friendly than before.

P-74

Title:  Behavior and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil Environment in Niigata and Yamagata Prefectures, Japan

Author(s): GAO Lidi (Niigata University)

            NISHIMURA Yoshikazu (Niigata University)

           SATO Yuichi (Niigata University)

          HIGASHIDAIRA Yoshimasa (Niigata University)

          KANO Naoki (Niigata University)

          IMAIZUMI Hiroshi (Niigata University)

Niigata and Yamagata Prefectures are the prominent granary regions in Japan, especially for rice. Then it is important to study the contents, speciation and behaviors of heavy metals in soil environment in this area. Soil samples, including paddy field, upland field and non-agricultural field, are collected from four places in Niigata and Yamagata Prefectures from 2005 to 2010 (in spring and autumn, respectively). The soils were air-dried, ground, and passed through a 2 mm sieve to remove rocks, roots, and other large particles, and then characterizations of soils are performed. Metallic elements in soils were partitioned and determined by a sequential extraction fractionation procedure along with total contents after microwave digestion. These elements were determined with an ICP-AES and ICP-MS.

Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1) The value of pH(H2O)-pH(KCl) in soil of the upland field is smallest. Moreover, EC (electric conductivity) in soil of the upland field is much higher than that of the paddy field or of the non-agricultural field. (2) Metals mainly exist in the form of residual fraction followed organic fraction or oxide fraction except for Zn. (3) The concentrations of heavy metals in soil in the paddy field is remarkably large. (4) The concentration of total REEs is largest in the upland field, and the concentration of U in soil in agricultural field is larger than that in non-agricultural field. It suggests that the effect of fertilizers is one of the important factors to effect the elemental concentrations of soils. (5) The tendency of metals distribution in the agricultural field might be attributable to the chemical behavior of elements in soil (e.g., stability of compounds in soil environment).

P-75

Title: Adaptation of retinal cone with CMOS circuit

Author(s): NITTA Masahiro (Toyama National College of Technology)

            AKITA Junichi (Kanazawa University)

           TSUKADA Akira (Toyama National College of Technology)

Although the dynamic range of retinal cones to the light is two log units at most, the cones can visually respond to the light over a luminance span of about six log units. For example, when people go from a dark area to a well-lighted area, adjustment is difficult quickly, but human can adjust to the changes of brightness and darkness for a while. This function is called adaptation. And it occurs mainly at retina of cone. The cones accomplish this by shifting the adapting level relative to the ambient light levels spatio-temporally. Furthermore, human can recognize both darkness and brightness at the same time. A mathematical model, proposed by Tsukada et al, explains the adaptation system of the cone. This mathematical model is composited with plural circuits to make the adaptation system. For example, a membrane equivalent circuit, a logarithmic conversion circuit and a time delay circuit.

 In this study, the purpose is to make a model on adaptation by large scale integrated circuit (LSI). So we designed and simulated each circuit using analog complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. As a result, we recreated the membrane equivalent circuit by the differential amplifier circuit, the logarithmic conversion circuit by a method of barrier voltage waveform and the time delay circuit by a multistage CR circuit.

P-76

Title:  Research of the evaluation method of saving energy illuminant by image processing

Author(s): AKAGAWA Ryunosuke (Toyama National College of Technology)

            TSUKADA Akira (Toyama National College of Technology)

           YAMAMOTO Keiichiro (Toyama National College of Technology)

                      ICHIKAWA Nobuhiko (Toyama National College of Technology)

                      TAKATA Kenji (Housetec CO.LTD)

                      FUWA Naoko (Housetec CO.LTD)

Recently, attention has been focused on illuminant material as a source of clean energy, due to the rise in concern for the environment. The illuminant material stores natural sunlight and fluorescent lighting. It emits the light in dark area. The illuminants are energy conservation because the illuminants are no running costs. It does not emit any environmental pollutants such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide. The illuminants can also be used as emergency lighting in situations such as earthquakes, typhoons and other disaster areas. But illuminant material is too expensive. There is a need to minimize the cost, while maximizing the duration of stable light emissions. Previously illuminants were evaluated by luminance meter. The measure area of luminance meter is small with an angle of one degree, so we could not evaluate unevenness of brightness all over the illuminants surface. Our goal is to evaluate the light emitting characteristics all over it by using digital video camera images. We compared the measurement analysis an illuminants of luminance meter to digital video camera. Both duration characteristics are similar. Order of the brightness of two illuminants was replaced among five illuminants with a slight difference. In this report, we examined an error factor of the measurement precisionAs a results, we found that temperature of the camera and an initial condition of the illuminant make a serious error.

P-77

Examination of quantification of fatigue by Visual Display Terminals operation

KAJI Tomoaki(Toyama National College of Technology)

MIZUMO Iwao(Toyama National College of Technology)

   Visual Display Terminals operations have been increasing by advanced Information Technology in recent years. VDT operations involve a lot of fatigue of mental and physical health problems. Brain waves were analyzed by the spectrum of α-waves and maximum Lyapunov exponent for estimating degree of fatigue.

Alteration in spectrum intensity of α-waves was compared with between before operations and after operations. Maximum Lyapunov exponent was calculated with the attractor of three dimension configured with measurement data. Brain waves were measured by bipolar derivation. Experimental objects were six men of twenty years old.

Examinee works VDT continuous operation for 30 minutes. Brain waves were measured before operations and after operations. Measurement data was processed FFT, and was analyzed spectrum. VAS method was adapted as subjective evaluation.

The spectrum intensity of α-waves was decreased after operations. A degree of fatigue by VAS method was related to the decreasing of spectrum intensity of α-waves. Maximum Lyapunov exponent of three people in six men was increased after operations.  Spectrum intensity of α-waves was related to the maximum Lyapunov exponent. A possibility of quantify the fatigue of VDT operations with maximum Lyapunov exponent, spectrum intensity of α-waves and degree of fatigue with VAS method was indicated.

P-78

Title:  Biosorption of Rare earths elements (REEs) from Aqueous Solutions by Pretreated Ruditapes philippinarum shell and Kinetic Study of the absorption

Author(s): WANG Yudan (Niigata University)

            SHIMA Shizuka (Niigata University)

           SAKAMOTO Nobuo (Niigata University)

          KANO Naoki (Niigata University)

          IMAIZUMI Hiroshi (Niigata University)

Pretreated Ruditapes philippinarum shells separated from meat were used as biomass for absorption of rare earths elements (REEs) from aqueous solutions in this study. After washing and drying, the shells were ground and then sieved through sieves to give particles having size smaller than 500m which were used as absorbent in following experiment. The effects of pH, initial concentration, sorbent dose, contact time, and pretreating methods, such as boiling, heating treatment on absorption ability of the biomass were discussed in this study. Sorption experiments were conducted in the pH range of 3–7, biosorbent dosage 0.2–3.0 g×dm-3, contact time from 10 min to 7 h, and initial concentration from 10 to 500 μg×dm-3. The concentrations before and after absorption of REEs in samples were measured with an ICP-MS. To evaluate the characteristics of the shell biomass used in this work, the surface morphology, the crystal structure, and the specific surface area of the biomass was determined by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), by XRD (X-ray powder diffraction), and BET (Brunaeur, Emmet and Teller) and Langmuir method, respectively. Furthermore, the confirmation of sorption and distribution of Lanthanum (La) on the biomass were investigated by electric probe micro analyzer (EPMA). The kinetic study of the sorption for these elements by using biomass was also carried out. Sorption isotherms were studied to explain the removal mechanism by fitting isotherms data into Lagmuir and Freundlich equations. Consequently, it was quantitatively clarified to some extent that the shell biomass could be an efficient sorbent for REEs.

P-80

Title:  Pencil Beam Algorithm on Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulation for Proton Radiation Therapy

Author(s): AOKI Atsushi (Toyama National College of Technology)

               ASO Tsukasa (Toyama National College of Technology)

Recently, the proton radiotherapy is widely accepted to cancer treatments. The proton beams can concentrate the deposited energy on the target tumor while minimizing the damage to normal Tissues. Therefore the proton radiotherapy is suitable for a treatment of tumor near critical organs. Prior to actual treatment, a treatment plan is proposed to ensure the effect and safety. Monte Carlo simulation (MC) is expected as the best calculation tool for this purpose. However, the MC takes a great amount of time to achieve a result with enough statistics. The Pencil Beam Algorithm (PBA), so far, has been used for the dose calculation in treatment planning system. PBA finishes the dose calculation within a few minutes using predefined a dose kernel and spreading parameters. However, it is known that the dose distribution is not correctly estimated in a heterogeneous medium with large mass density gradient.

In this paper, the implementation of the PBA on the MC is presented. The pencil beam is tracked using the transportation process and delvers dose according to the dose kernel. Then the doses are smeared laterally to reproduce the lateral dose distributions. The final goal of this research is to realize the hybrid dose calculation, which switches the MC and the PBA according to the condition. Therefore, the resultant dose distributions for the PBA and the MC were compared to clarify the applicable domains for each method.

P-81

Title: Study of Influence of Material Assignments in Dose Distribution for Heavy Particle Radiation Therapy.

Author(s):                 TANIUCHI Asuka (Toyama National College of Technology)

          ASO Tsukasa (Toyama National College of Technology)

The heavy ion radiotherapy is one of cancer treatments. A heavy ion beam forms Bragg peak in dose distribution. A heavy ion discharges big deposited energy just before it stops. By the characteristics, it is effective in particular for a treatment of tumor in deep position of a patient. In radiation therapies, the dose calculation using simulation tools is very important, because the dose distribution in a patient can not be measured directly. In a current treatment planning system, electronic densities are calculated corresponding to each CT value based on the computed tomography images. Then the electron density is converted to the mass density of water by taking into account the stopping power of the heavy ion. Finally, the patient geometry is constructed using those waters of different densities. However, the effects of hadronizations are not negligible in heavy ion interactions. Here the hadronizations depend on the materials and particle species.

In this research, the influence due to the different material assignments to dose distribution had been studied using the particle therapy simulation, PTSIM, based on the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation. The PTSIM handles physics interactions including hadronization processes. The PTSIM had been modified to adopt material compositions of tissues to each CT value. Then, the simulations had been performed for proton beams for several treatment parameters. In this paper, the comparison of dose distributions for waters and tissue materials are presented and discussed.

P-82

Title:  Proton Radiation Therapy Simulation on Large Scale Grid Environment

Author(s): NOTO Ryosuke (Toyama National College of Technology)

                      ASO Tsukasa (Toyama National College of Technology)

Proton radiation therapy is one of cancer treatments. By the characteristics of Bragg peak, proton radiation therapy can concentrate dose on the tumor effectively rather than X-ray radiation therapy. Before treatment, the treatment plan using simulation tools is necessary to confirm its safety and effectiveness. Recently, the particle therapy simulation, PTSIM, based on GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has been developed and widely used for dose calculation. The MC based simulation is believed as the most reliable method. However, the MC simulation requires simulating a huge number of protons to achieve dose distributions three dimensionally with enough statistics. The computational efficiency is still critical.

 In this study, the MC simulations were performed on a large-scale Grid environment, in order to obtain better response time. The LCG-Grid in High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK, was used. PTSIM was adopted for proton therapy simulation. It simulates an irradiation system and a patient volume for proton radiation therapy with patient treatment parameters. In order to obtain statistically enough dose distributions, at lease 100M protons have to be simulated. On Grid environment, the 100M protons were divided into 200 jobs, i.e. each job simulates 500K protons, and submitted to a Computer Element (CE) of LCG-Grid. Here the CE includes over 1500 nodes, for example. The irradiation system parameters and patient data of DICOM CT images are placed on a network attached storage which is shared inside the CE. In this paper, the detail of the simulation on Grid environment is presented. The computational efficiency is discussed in terms of round trip time and error rates.

P-83

Title: Screening of methane-oxidizing microorganisms with high methanol resistance

Authors:                    NISHIZUKA Takaya (Nagaoka University of Technology)

MASUMA Sho (Nagaoka University of Technology)

ABE Katsumasa (Nagaoka University of Technology)

TAKAHASHI Shouji (Nagaoka University of Technology)

KERA Yoshi (Nagaoka University of Technology)

 Methanol is expected to serve as one of alternatives to petroleum fuel, and the current industrial process to synthesize methanol from methane consumes a great deal of energy. The methanol synthesis with methane-oxidizing bacteria has been recently studied, since the bacterial synthesis of methanol is generally thought to be more energy-saving than the current industrial method. Methane-oxidizing bacteria so far reported, however, can accumulate methanol at very low concentration (0.02% (v/v)) in the culture medium. In this study, to increase microbial production of methanol from methane, we try to obtain methane-oxidizing bacteria which maintain the activity to oxidize methane to methanol even in the presence of much higher concentration of methanol in the medium.

 Samples, which may have been exposed to methane, from compost works and sludge of wastewater treatment tank, were collected in Nagaoka city, and enrichment of the methane-oxidizing bacteria from these samples was carried out using methane as the sole carbon source at 30°C, with gently shaking. We obtained an enrichment culture having methane-oxidizing activity from sludge of wastewater treatment tank in a brewing company. Methanol was added to the enrichment culture at the final concentration of 1-5% (v/v) in the medium, and the methane-oxidizing activity was examined after 3 days-cultivation in the same way. The activity was observed only in the culture to which methanol was added at the final concentration of 1% (v/v) (50-fold higher concentration of methanol reported previously). Analysis of partial nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes showed that the culture contains microorganisms closely related to Methylosinus trichosporium which is able to grow on methane as the sole carbon and energy source.

P-84

Title: Screening of methane-oxidizing microorganisms with high methanol resistance

Authors:                    NISHIZUKA Takaya (Nagaoka University of Technology)

MASUMA Sho (Nagaoka University of Technology)

ABE Katsumasa (Nagaoka University of Technology)

TAKAHASHI Shouji (Nagaoka University of Technology)

KERA Yoshi (Nagaoka University of Technology)

 Methanol is expected to serve as one of alternatives to petroleum fuel, and the current industrial process to synthesize methanol from methane consumes a great deal of energy. The methanol synthesis with methane-oxidizing bacteria has been recently studied, since the bacterial synthesis of methanol is generally thought to be more energy-saving than the current industrial method. Methane-oxidizing bacteria so far reported, however, can accumulate methanol at very low concentration (0.02% (v/v)) in the culture medium. In this study, to increase microbial production of methanol from methane, we try to obtain methane-oxidizing bacteria which maintain the activity to oxidize methane to methanol even in the presence of much higher concentration of methanol in the medium.

 Samples, which may have been exposed to methane, from compost works and sludge of wastewater treatment tank, were collected in Nagaoka city, and enrichment of the methane-oxidizing bacteria from these samples was carried out using methane as the sole carbon source at 30°C, with gently shaking. We obtained an enrichment culture having methane-oxidizing activity from sludge of wastewater treatment tank in a brewing company. Methanol was added to the enrichment culture at the final concentration of 1-5% (v/v) in the medium, and the methane-oxidizing activity was examined after 3 days-cultivation in the same way. The activity was observed only in the culture to which methanol was added at the final concentration of 1% (v/v) (50-fold higher concentration of methanol reported previously). Analysis of partial nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes showed that the culture contains microorganisms closely related to Methylosinus trichosporium which is able to grow on methane as the sole carbon and energy source.

P-85

Title: Purification and characterization of an organophosphorus hydrolase from Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1

Authors:                    MAJIMA Ryousuke (Nagaoka University of Technology)

TAKAHASHI Yuki (Nagaoka University of Technology)

ABE Katsumasa (Nagaoka University of Technology)

TAKAHASHI Shouji (Nagaoka University of Technology)

KERA Yoshi (Nagaoka University of Technology)

 The chlorinated organophosphate triester, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), has been widely used as a flame retardant and a plasticizer. Although it has been detected in various environments, especially in landfill leachates with a high concentration, there has been no information on the microbial degradation of TCEP. Recently, carcinogenicity of TCEP has been reported and thus raises concern about its harmful effect on organisms including human. We isolated a TCEP-degrading bacterium, Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1, using TCEP as the sole phosphorus source. In this study, we report the purification and characterization of the TCEP-degrading enzyme (organophosphorus hydrolase, E.C. 3.1.8.1) from Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1.

 TCEP-degrading enzyme was purified by procedures including sonication, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, buffer exchange, cation exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography. The enzyme was purified 14-fold from the cell-free extract to a final preparation with a specific activity of 6.40 µmol·min-1·mg-1. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme gave a single band, with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 58.6 kDa. The native enzyme is a monomer, as suggested by its behavior on gel filtration. Optimal pH and temperature of the purified enzyme were 8.5 and 25°C, respectively. The enzyme was significantly activated by the addition of Co2+ and Mn2+ and inhibited by EDTA and EGTA. It was suggested that the enzyme contained zinc ion as a cofactor by ICP-MS analysis of the enzyme. The enzyme degraded halo-alkyl triesters, aryl triesters, paraoxon and DDVP, but did not alkyl triesters and parathion.

P-86

Title:  Construction of Database for Crystal Grained Eco-Materials with Bending Stress.

Author(s): SAKAI Takashi (Seikei University)

KIKUTA Shinsaku (Seikei University)

OMATA Hitoshi (AMADA Co., Ltd.)

KOYAMA Jun-ichi (AMADA Co., Ltd.)

Grained materials are superior in lightweight, high strength, high corrosion resistance and recyclability.  In addition, laser processed materials are processed by the laser cutting machine which is high speed and high efficiency and highly precise.  Unfortunately, fundamental and property of both materials are not well known.  Therefore, in order to improve the material characteristics, the relationship between crystallographic orientations and mechanical properties were examined for single- and poly-crystals such as grained pure copper, and laser processed JIS-SPCC carbon steel and JIS-A6022 aluminum alloy.  The springback degree used by BI-J (Bending Indicater) of AMADA Co.,Ltd. was measured.  Furthermore, some analytical results, such as crystal direction maps, IPF (Inverse Pole Figure) and ODF (Orientation Distribution Function) were obtained by SEM-EBSD (Scanning Electron Microscope-Electron BackScatter Diffraction) and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) apparatus.  To investigate the effect of crystal orientation for the several mechanical properties of the grained materials and laser processed materials, bending test were carried out at room temperature in air.  The relation of the crystal direction calculated by the analytical software for XRD date and SEM-EBSD data is cleared.  Therefore, these data are input to the database proposed in this study.  Today, we have 1 data of XRD and 74 data of SEM-EBSD in this database. (204 words)

P-87

Title:  Design of Guardrail by using Fractal Dimension

Author(s):  SAKAI Takashi (Seikei University)

NAKAMURA Takahiro (Seikei University)

Recently, healing which represents 1/f fluctuation gains the spotlight in order to increase of stress in today’s society.  As an example of healing, classic music is featured.  Additionally, light, pattern, heat, wind and shape also provide relaxation for human-beings.  The reason why those factors provide relaxation is that biorhythm representing alpha waves include 1/f wavelength which is the same as fluctuation.  If the element of healing and the nature of relaxation needed for transcription are analyzed quantitatively, transcriptional method of healing will be established.  To apply that method, healing elements is capable of being added to surface of mass-manufactured products.  Thus, using a procedure of transcription of healing is to contribute to provide relaxation for society filled with stress.

In previous study, in order to evaluate the relaxation and surface irregularity of famous artist’s bowl and other analytical objects, an analytical procedure was examined by applying the concept of fractals, hyperbola model of the Richardson effect, and FFT analysis.  It was found that the famous artist’s bowl had a fractal nature and a relative self-similarity and the geometrical irregularity of the surface can be effectively evaluated by developing and combining fractal dimension D and the FFT parameters.  In addition, Fractal dimensions and the nature of relaxation were connected as range of D=2.3 to 2.6. To use this value is widely useful for application to the design of a mechanical structure. In other words, the value is applied to not only design of mechanical structure but also the design of everyday items. In this study, by using the fractal dimension D elucidated, surface irregularity of relaxation is transcribed onto guardrail which is not designed in terms of relaxation as a value-added. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to design a new guardrail which contains relaxation. (295words)

P-88

Title:    Development of new biologics by using agricultural wastes for bioremediation

of soil contaminated by organic agrochemicals

Authors:  Mizoguchi  Yusuke (University of Toyama)

          Maki  Takano(University of Toyama)

Hoshino  Kazuhiro(University of Toyama)

Recently, the purification of the soil polluted with organism pesticides and the development of recycling process are hoped for.  These materials are very hard to decompose in nature and its diffusion velocity in the soil is very slow.  Further, it has been studied to be biodegraded much environmental pollution in soil by with new biologics by preparing lignin-degrading enzymes secreted white-rot fungi and agricultural wastes. In this study, the white-rot fungi immobilized on agricultural waste was developed by cultivating as polished rice and rice straw as activating agents for secretion of lignin-degrading enzymes and carbon sources for its growth.  The prepared biologics was injected to the soil contained 100 ppm PCP(Pentachlorophenol).  The fungus weights in soil was determined from the quantity of a specific DNA based on the laccase-DNA domain of the fungus by using real-time PCR method and futher the activities of laccase, Peroxidase, Mn-peroxidase, and lignin Peroxidase secreted from the biologics in soil was estimated.  As a result, in the soil with 100 ppm PCP the growth of the fungus in biologics, which was prepared by immobilizing Trametes versicolor (Kawara-take) in the mixture of feed rice and rice straw, was almost constant with that injected directly in soil (Control experimentation) for 1 month. However, the lignin-degrading enzymes secreted from the biologics in soil were 4 – 14 times as high as those of the control, respectively.  Moreover, PCP concentration in soil was decreased to 37 ppm in the soil with new biologics for 28 days.  From these results, it was found the new biologics was able to use for bioremediation of soil contaminated by organic agrochemicals.

P-89

Development of Forest Monitoring System using Multi-Camera.

Naofumi Yamamoto, Ryotaro Komura

Ishikawa National College of Technology,

Tsubata, Kahou-gun, Ishikawa, 929-0392, Japan.

At the present period in there are a lot of environmental problems, the system for monitoring the environment is important as a device to know the state of the environment. The fixed point observation monitoring system used on the ground is available for the environmental monitoring. But most systems set up at one place and keep observing only one direction. Then those systems observe a limited location. It is necessary to change in the direction in which it takes a picture of the camera to observe wide areas. In the camera observation system, it is necessary to move camera direction without man power for respect of the labor and accuracy.

The purpose of this study is to develop the system for monitoring the environment that can change the direction of the camera automatically to observe wide areas continuously. PTU(Pan Tilt Unit) is used as a system for moving the direction of cameras. Moreover, NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) is calculated with two cameras to estimate the activities of the trees at the forest of the target area. SURF(Speeded Up Robust Features) is used as a method of achieving overlapping two pictures at same time. Finally, by using the observation system in this study, a pictures at wide area were saved constantly, and the surrounding image of NDVI in a certain point was produced.